How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson K. US biofuels: a field in ferment. Nature. 2006 Dec 7;444(7120):673–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu SQ, Cull-Candy SG. Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature. 2000 May 25;405(6785):454–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun JY, Wu XS, Wu LG. Single and multiple vesicle fusion induce different rates of endocytosis at a central synapse. Nature. 2002 May 30;417(6888):555–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piggott AY, Lu J, Babinec TM, Lagoudakis KG, Petykiewicz J, Vučković J. Inverse design and implementation of a wavelength demultiplexing grating coupler. Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 27;4:7210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey JS, Mack MD, Fiore LB. Your Anxious Child. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Saliou G. Practical Guide to Neurovascular Emergencies. Theaudin M, Join-Lambert Vincent C, Souillard-Scemama R, editors. Paris: Springer; 2014. XVII, 192 p. 137 illus., 42 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Aubry JM, Xian X. Fast Implicit Simulation of Flexible Trees. In: Ochiai H, Anjyo K, editors. Mathematical Progress in Expressive Image Synthesis II: Extended and Selected Results from the Symposium MEIS2014. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 47–61. (Mathematics for Industry).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

Blog post
Hale T. This “Invisible Television” Screen Looks Incredible. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Automated Welfare Systems: Historical Costs and Projections. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Feb. Report No.: AIMD-94-52FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Love KS. Factors infleuncing job satisfaction in nurses [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
STEVEN LEE MYERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article. 2nd Russian Jury Convicts a Physicist Who Was Acquitted of Spy Charges. New York Times. 2004 Nov 6;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Practice and Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)1445-937X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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