How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mazin II. Superconductivity: Extraordinarily conventional. Nature. 2015 Sep 3;525(7567):40–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brochier C, Philippe H. Phylogeny: a non-hyperthermophilic ancestor for bacteria. Nature. 2002 May 16;417(6886):244.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fuchs B, Sornette D, Thurner S. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 6;4:6526.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wallraff A, Lukashenko A, Lisenfeld J, Kemp A, Fistul MV, Koval Y, et al. Quantum dynamics of a single vortex. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):155–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Price J. The Conscious Investor. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Kiayias A, editor. Topics in Cryptology – CT-RSA 2011: The Cryptographers’ Track at the RSA Conference 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA, February 14-18, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XIII, 417 p. 70 illus., 20 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6558).
A chapter in an edited book
Regolin L, Daisley JN, Rosa Salva O, Vallortigara G. Advantages of a Lateralised Brain for Reasoning About the Social World in Chicks. In: Csermely D, Regolin L, editors. Behavioral Lateralization in Vertebrates: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 39–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

Blog post
Evans K. Yosemite National Park Grows By 400 Acres In Largest Expansion In 70 Years [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Elementary and Secondary Education: Ed-Flex States Vary in Implementation of Waiver Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Nov. Report No.: HEHS-99-17.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee BK. Tracking of truck flows for drayage efficiency analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. A Burst of Activity, Then a Fall in the Night. New York Times. 2016 Nov 16;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Practice and Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)1445-937X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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