How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas GH. Evolution: An avian explosion. Nature. 2015 Oct 22;526(7574):516–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Loosdrecht MCM, Brdjanovic D. Water treatment. Anticipating the next century of wastewater treatment. Science. 2014 Jun 27;344(6191):1452–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Körtner G, Brigham RM, Geiser F. Winter torpor in a large bird. Nature. 2000 Sep 21;407(6802):318.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Grieneisen VA, Xu J, Marée AFM, Hogeweg P, Scheres B. Auxin transport is sufficient to generate a maximum and gradient guiding root growth. Nature. 2007 Oct 25;449(7165):1008–13.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
AIChE Equipment Testing Procedure. Tray Distillation Columns. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1987.
An edited book
Nash JF Jr, Rassias MT, editors. Open Problems in Mathematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XIII, 543 p. 88 illus., 17 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Hattotuwagama CK, Doytchinova IA, Guan P, Flower DR. In Silico QSAR-Based Predictions of Class I and Class II MHC Epitopes. In: Schönbach C, Ranganathan S, Brusic V, editors. Immunoinformatics. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 63–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Crop Records Reveal Madagascar And Comoros Were Settled From Southeast Asia [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Privacy Data: The Data Encryption Standard Provides Valuable Protection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Mar. Report No.: 132644.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds PE. Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barboza D. Chinese Giant Rose on a Web Of Family Ties. New York Times. 2017 Jul 19;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Practice and Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)1445-937X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles