How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fara P. Perceptions of science. Face values: how portraits win friends and influence people. Science. 2003 Feb 7;299(5608):831–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dijk D-J, Skeldon AC. Biological rhythms: Human sleep before the industrial era. Nature. 2015 Nov 12;527(7577):176–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arnaud-Haond S, Arrieta JM, Duarte CM. Global genetic resources. Marine biodiversity and gene patents. Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1521–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Andersen JS, Wilkinson CJ, Mayor T, Mortensen P, Nigg EA, Mann M. Proteomic characterization of the human centrosome by protein correlation profiling. Nature. 2003 Dec 4;426(6966):570–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paolella MS. Fundamental Probability. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Nixon PJ, Sims I, editors. RILEM Recommendations for the Prevention of Damage by Alkali-Aggregate Reactions in New Concrete Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 219-ACS. 1st ed. 2016. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. XVI, 168 p. 20 illus. (RILEM State-of-the-Art Reports; vol. 17).
A chapter in an edited book
Wagter R, Proper HA, Witte D. A Practice-Based Framework for Enterprise Coherence. In: Proper E, Gaaloul K, Harmsen F, Wrycza S, editors. Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation: 4th Working Conference, PRET 2012, Gdańsk, Poland, June 27, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 77–95. (van der Aalst W, Mylopoulos J, Rosemann M, Shaw MJ, Szyperski C, editors. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Predict The Next Plant Disease Epidemic [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. USDA Graduate School: Revenue Reporting Needs to Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Oct. Report No.: GAO-02-5.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hannington RL. Power and display in the court music of Augustus the Strong: The influences affecting the composition of Johann David Heinichens’s sinfonias [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crane AT, Hay G. All Is Sparkly For Tiffany. New York Times. 2010 Nov 25;B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Practice and Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)1445-937X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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