How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Pasachoff JM. Transit of Venus: Last chance to see. Nature. 2012 May 16;485(7398):303–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Lucht M, Rosskopf D. Comment on “Genetically determined differences in learning from errors.” Science. 2008 Jul 11;321(5886):200; author reply 200.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Shim SH, Duffy TS, Shen G. Stability and structure of MgSiO3 perovskite to 2300-kilometer depth in Earth’s mantle. Science. 2001 Sep 28;293(5539):2437–40.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kong A, Thorleifsson G, Frigge ML, Vilhjalmsson BJ, Young AI, Thorgeirsson TE, et al. The nature of nurture: Effects of parental genotypes. Science. 2018 Jan 26;359(6374):424–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lu J, Zhao X, Yamada S. Harmonic Balance Finite Element Method. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Wu J, Chen H, Wang X, editors. Advanced Computer Architecture: 10th Annual Conference, ACA 2014, Shenyang, China, August 23-24, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XII, 255 p. 128 illus. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 451).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Wu H, Wolter K. Dynamic Transmission Scheduling and Link Selection in Mobile Cloud Computing. In: Sericola B, Telek M, Horváth G, editors. Analytical and Stochastic Modeling Techniques and Applications: 21st International Conference, ASMTA 2014, Budapest, Hungary, June 30 – July 2, 2014 Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 61–79. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Kobsa A, Mattern F, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Scientists Find One Of The Last Ever Lakes On Mars [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/scientists-find-one-last-ever-lakes-mars/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Highway Projects: Extent of Unobligated Balances for Demonstration Projects as of March 31, 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jun. Report No.: GAO-02-721R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Angell BD. Transformational Innovation and Transformational Leadership in the U.S. Government Department of Defense Acquisitions Workforce [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rothenberg B. Murray, on a High, Raises His Sights. New York Times. 2016 Sep 1;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacy Practice and Research
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)1445-937X
ScopePharmacology (medical)
Pharmacy

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