How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta, S. (2014). Skin colour: no hiding in the dark. Nature, 515(7527), S121-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, M. I., & Wilson, R. J. (2002). A topographically forced asymmetry in the martian circulation and climate. Nature, 416(6878), 298–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
Spracklen, D. V., Arnold, S. R., & Taylor, C. M. (2012). Observations of increased tropical rainfall preceded by air passage over forests. Nature, 489(7415), 282–285.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lyamin, O., Pryaslova, J., Lance, V., & Siegel, J. (2005). Animal behaviour: continuous activity in cetaceans after birth. Nature, 435(7046), 1177.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kesidis, G. (2007). An Introduction to Communication Network Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tonsberg, T. A. (2016). Understanding Leadership in Complex Systems: A Praxeological Perspective. (J. S. Henderson, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bukodi, E. (2010). Educational Expansion and Social Class Returns to Tertiary Qualifications in Post-communist Countries. In J. Dronkers (Ed.), Quality and Inequality of Education: Cross-National Perspectives (pp. 83–110). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 21). Drug-Resistant Malaria Parasite From Southeast Asia Infects African Mosquitoes Too. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Education and Employment Issue Area: Active Assignments (No. AA-98-13(2)). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shockley, C. (2010). Mental health parity law: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2012, June 14). Bury Lenin? Russian Minister Stirs Debate Over Soviet Past. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gupta, 2014; Richardson & Wilson, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson & Wilson, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Spracklen, Arnold, & Taylor, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lyamin, Pryaslova, Lance, & Siegel, 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods
ISSN (print)1056-8719

Other styles