How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Malim, M. H. (2014). HIV: Ringside views. Nature, 505(7482), 167–168.
A journal article with 2 authors
Logan, B. E., & Elimelech, M. (2012). Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water. Nature, 488(7411), 313–319.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandra, F. A., Buzi, G., & Doyle, J. C. (2011). Glycolytic oscillations and limits on robust efficiency. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6039), 187–192.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hatta, M., Gao, P., Halfmann, P., & Kawaoka, Y. (2001). Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1840–1842.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansorge, R. (2005). Mathematical Models of Fluiddynamics. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ramanathan, A. L., Bhattacharya, P., Dittmar, T., Prasad, M. B. K., & Neupane, B. R. (Eds.). (2010). Management and Sustainable Development of Coastal Zone Environments. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kelly, P. F. (2012). Class, Migration, and Identity in a Philippine Village. In C. Plüss & K.-B. Chan (Eds.), Living Intersections: Transnational Migrant Identifications in Asia (pp. 53–70). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 22). Short, Sharp Shocks Let Slip The Stories Of Supernovae. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Taxes (No. AIMD-98-78R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anyaoha, A. L. (2013). Surgical time-out: A nursing team training approach (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Morris, M. (2012, May 6). Black Sheep. New York Times, p. BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Malim, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Logan & Elimelech, 2012; Malim, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Logan & Elimelech, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Chandra, Buzi, & Doyle, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hatta, Gao, Halfmann, & Kawaoka, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods
ISSN (print)1056-8719

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