How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellerbroek, B. (2014). Astronomical instrumentation: Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy. Nature, 512(7513), 144–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, P. U., & Mix, A. C. (2000). Ice sheets by volume. Nature, 406(6797), 689–690.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sørensen, T. L.-M., Møller, J. V., & Nissen, P. (2004). Phosphoryl transfer and calcium ion occlusion in the calcium pump. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5677), 1672–1675.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Goldberger, J., He, R., Zhang, Y., Lee, S., Yan, H., Choi, H.-J., & Yang, P. (2003). Single-crystal gallium nitride nanotubes. Nature, 422(6932), 599–602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smed, J., & Hakonen, H. (2006). Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hardiman, O., & Doherty, C. P. (Eds.). (2011). Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Clinical Guide. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mulser, P., & Bauer, D. (2010). The Ponderomotive Force and Nonresonant Effects. In D. Bauer (Ed.), High Power Laser-Matter Interaction (pp. 193–227). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, March 18). Crystal with “Forbidden Symmetry” Found in 4.5-Billion-Year-Old Meteorite. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Tax Systems Modernization: Update on Critical Issues Facing IRS (T-IMTEC-92-18). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho, L. (2012). Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Austen, B. (2016, December 10). Violence and Division on Chicago’s South Side. New York Times, SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellerbroek, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Clark & Mix, 2000; Ellerbroek, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark & Mix, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Sørensen et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Goldberger et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods
ISSN (print)1056-8719

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