How to format your references using the International Journal of Electronic Commerce citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Electronic Commerce. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Walsh, C. correction: Enabling the chemistry of life. Nature, 411, 6839 (2001), 824.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Henzler-Wildman, K.; and Kern, D. Dynamic personalities of proteins. Nature, 450, 7172 (2007), 964–972.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Doniger, D.D.; Herzog, A.V.; and Lashof, D.A. Climate change. An ambitious, centrist approach to global warming legislation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314, 5800 (2006), 764–765.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
1. Farhan, A.; Gulati, J.; Groβe-Wilde, E.; Vogel, H.; Hansson, B.S.; and Knaden, M. The CCHamide 1 receptor modulates sensory perception and olfactory behavior in starved Drosophila. Scientific reports, 3, (2013), 2765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Quesnel, F. Scheduling of Large-Scale Virtualized Infrastructures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
An edited book
1. Müller, H.; Greenspan, H.; and Syeda-Mahmood, T. (eds.). Medical Content-Based Retrieval for Clinical Decision Support: Second MICCAI International Workshop, MCBR-CDS 2011, Toronto, ON, Canada, September 22, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gülay Gürbüz, H.; Pala Er, N.; and Tekinerdogan, B. Architecture Framework for Software Safety. In D. Amyot, P. Fonseca i Casas, G. Mussbacher (eds). System Analysis and Modeling: Models and Reusability: 8th International Conference, SAM 2014, Valencia, Spain, September 29-30, 2014. ProceedingsCham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 64–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Electronic Commerce.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. Scientists at the National Ignition Facility have produced a record fusion energy yield, bringing us closer to fusion power. IFLScience, (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DOD Schools: Funding and Operating Alternatives for Education of Dependents. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hensley, A.L. Gender, personality, and coping: Unraveling gender in military post -deployment physical and mental wellness. (2009).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey, G. Matsui Stars in Another Classic Bronx Tale. New York Times, (2010), B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3; 4].
This sentence cites four references [4; 6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Electronic Commerce
AbbreviationInt. J. Electron. Commer.
ISSN (print)1086-4415
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles