How to format your references using the International Journal of Electronic Commerce citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Electronic Commerce. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Rubinsztein, D.C. Cell biology: Receptors for selective recycling. Nature, 522, 7556 (2015), 291–292.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Demaurex, N.; and Poburko, D. Cell biology. A revolving door for calcium. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326, 5949 (2009), 57–58.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bloch, I., I.; Hansch, T.W.; and Esslinger, T. Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition. Nature, 403, 6766 (2000), 166–170.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
1. McDonald, B.C.; de Gouw, J.A.; Gilman, J.B.; Jathar, S.H.; Akherati, A.; Cappa, C.D.; Jimenez, J.L.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Hayes, P.L.; McKeen, S.A.; Cui, Y.Y.; Kim, S.-W.; Gentner, D.R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G.; et al. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359, 6377 (2018), 760–764.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Primak, S.L.; and Kontorovich, V. Wireless Multi-Antenna Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
1. Sun, M.; Liu, Y.; and Zhao, J. (eds.). Chinese Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing Based on Naturally Annotated Big Data: 13th China National Conference, CCL 2014, and Second International Symposium, NLP-NABD 2014, Wuhan, China, October 18-19, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kleanthous, S.; Christophorou, C.; Tsiourti, C.; Dantas, C.; Wintjens, R.; Samaras, G.; and Christodoulou, E. Analysis of Elderly Users’ Preferences and Expectations on Service Robot’s Personality, Appearance and Interaction. In J. Zhou, G. Salvendy (eds). Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population. Healthy and Active Aging: Second International Conference, ITAP 2016, Held as Part of HCI International 2016 Toronto, ON, Canada, July 17–22, 2016, Proceedings, Part IICham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 35–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Electronic Commerce.

Blog post
1. Andrew, E. Does Non-Celiac Gluten Intolerance Actually Exist? IFLScience, (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Cloud-Seeding Activities Carried Out in the United States Under Programs Supported by the Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Younis, K.M. The impact of moral values on ethical practices in environmental management. (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Saslow, L. Replacing Yellow Buses, With Green in Mind. New York Times, (2006), 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3; 4].
This sentence cites four references [4; 5; 7; 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Electronic Commerce
AbbreviationInt. J. Electron. Commer.
ISSN (print)1086-4415
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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