How to format your references using the International Journal of Electronic Commerce citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Electronic Commerce. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brophy, P.J. Microbiology. Subversion of Schwann cells and the leper’s bell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296, 5569 (2002), 862–863.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Montpetit, B.; and Weis, K. Cell biology. An alternative route for nuclear mRNP export by membrane budding. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336, 6083 (2012), 809–810.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Danchin, E.; Wajnberg, E.; and Wagner, R.H. Avoiding pitfalls in estimating heritability with the common options approach. Scientific reports, 4, (2014), 3974.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
1. Fuchs, G.D.; Dobrovitski, V.V.; Toyli, D.M.; Heremans, F.J.; and Awschalom, D.D. Gigahertz dynamics of a strongly driven single quantum spin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326, 5959 (2009), 1520–1522.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hull, B. Manufacturing Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
1. Friedman, Y. Physical Applications of Homogeneous Balls, 1st ed. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kaidanovskii, N.L. The Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In S.Y. Braude, A.E. Salomonovich, V.A. Samanian, I.S. Shklovskii, R.L. Sorochenko, V.S. Troitskii, K.I. Kellermann, B.A. Dubinskii, N.L. Kaidanovskii, N.S. Kardashev, M.M. Kobrin, A.D. Kuzmin, A.P. Molchanov, Y.N. Pariiskii, et al. (eds). A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR: A Collection of Scientific EssaysDordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 117–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Electronic Commerce.

Blog post
1. Hale, T. Stunning Drone Footage Of A Paddleboarder’s Encounter With Two Whales. IFLScience, (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Domestic Aviation: Effects of Changes in How Airline Tickets Are Sold. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Choi, K.K. Conspiracy and alternative crimes in the Military Commissions Act of 2009: Is There a Way Out? (2010).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy, M.J.O. By Boat or Rail, East Egg to West, ‘Gatsby’ Beckons. New York Times, (2010), C35.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2; 4].
This sentence cites four references [2; 6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Electronic Commerce
AbbreviationInt. J. Electron. Commer.
ISSN (print)1086-4415
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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