How to format your references using the International Journal of Electronic Commerce citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Electronic Commerce. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Montgomery, J. Chemistry. High-throughput discovery of new chemical reactions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333, 6048 (2011), 1387–1388.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zens, M.S.; and Webb, C.O. Ecology. Sizing up the shape of life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 5559 (2002), 1475–1476.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mason, A.C.; Oshinsky, M.L.; and Hoy, R.R. Hyperacute directional hearing in a microscale auditory system. Nature, 410, 6829 (2001), 686–690.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
1. Smith, G.F.; Steenkamp, Y.; Klopper, R.R.; Siebert, S.J.; and Arnold, T.H. The price of collecting life. Nature, 422, 6930 (2003), 375–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Dmytryk, R. Wildlife Search and Rescue. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2011.
An edited book
1. Thai, K.V. (ed.). International Public Procurement: Innovation and Knowledge Sharing. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fischer, M. Pear Breeding. In P.M. Priyadarshan, S.M. Jain (eds). Breeding Plantation Tree Crops: Temperate SpeciesNew York, NY: Springer, 2009, pp. 135–160.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Electronic Commerce.

Blog post
1. Fang, J. Stalagmites Record 3,000 Years of Climate Changes in Europe. IFLScience, (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Review of Accounts, CAB Through June 30, 1971. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Moose, A.M. The Relationship of Distributed Expertise and Shared Leadership in New Product Development Teams: A Comparative Case Study. (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh, M.W. The Little State With a Big Mess. New York Times, (2011), BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2; 4].
This sentence cites four references [4; 5; 7; 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Electronic Commerce
AbbreviationInt. J. Electron. Commer.
ISSN (print)1086-4415
ScopeBusiness and International Management
Economics and Econometrics

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