How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith MS (2012) Change the approach to sustainable development. Nature 483:375
A journal article with 2 authors
Harrisingh MC, Nitabach MN (2008) Circadian rhythms. Integrating circadian timekeeping with cellular physiology. Science 320:879–880
A journal article with 3 authors
Wurmser AE, Palmer TD, Gage FH (2004) Neuroscience. Cellular interactions in the stem cell niche. Science 304:1253–1255
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mao J-H, Kim I-J, Wu D, et al (2008) FBXW7 targets mTOR for degradation and cooperates with PTEN in tumor suppression. Science 321:1499–1502

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruiz J-L (2017) Supra-Gingival Minimally Invasive Dentistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Akhgar B, Bayerl PS, Sampson F (2016) Open Source Intelligence Investigation: From Strategy to Implementation. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Inverardi P (2007) Software of the Future Is the Future of Software? In: Montanari U, Sannella D, Bruni R (eds) Trustworthy Global Computing: Second Symposium, TGC 2006, Lucca, Italy, November 7-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Algae Blooms Alter Nitrogen And Phosphorus Cycles In Lakes To Their Benefit. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Airport Development Needs: Estimating Future Costs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Freund SH (2013) The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required Of Automobile Repair Technicians. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gillis J (2017) For Third Year, the Earth in 2016 Set Heat Record. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
AbbreviationJ. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn.
ISSN (print)1567-567X
ISSN (online)1573-8744

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