How to format your references using the Journal of Bacteriology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Bacteriology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davis E. 2000. Volcanic action at Axial Seamount. Nature 403:379–380.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Shea PG, Freund HP. 2001. Free-electron lasers. Status and applications. Science 292:1853–1858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gormley WT Jr, Phillips D, Gayer T. 2008. The early years. Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science 320:1723–1724.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bezerra-Neto MM, Ribeiro MS, Sanyal B, Bergman A, Muniz RB, Eriksson O, Klautau AB. 2013. Complex magnetic structure of clusters and chains of Ni and Fe on Pt(111). Sci Rep 3:3054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Utas G. 2006. Robust Communications Software. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
2005. Acceleration and Improvement of Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Celigoj FA, Coward RM, Timberlake MD, Smith RP. 2016. Anatomy and Physiology of Erection, Ejaculation, and Orgasm, p. 33–41. In Lipshultz, LI, Pastuszak, AW, Goldstein, AT, Giraldi, A, Perelman, MA (eds.), Management of Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Bacteriology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. New Theory Suggests Parallel Universes Interact With And Affect Our Own Universe. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Information Technology: Comments on Proposed OMB Guidance for Implementing the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. AIMD-99-228R. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barger B. 2014. A Quantitative Study of Educational Poverty, School Location, and Student Achievement Measured by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. 2017. Mystery of the Hamilton Painting at City Hall: Lost, Stolen or Never There? New York Times.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Bacteriology
AbbreviationJ. Bacteriol.
ISSN (print)0021-9193
ISSN (online)1098-5530
ScopeMolecular Biology

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