How to format your references using the Longevity Sciences and Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Longevity Sciences and Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Goodwin I. Bush appoints venture capitalist as technology adviser. Nature 2001;410:617.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Wardle DA, Zackrisson O. Effects of species and functional group loss on island ecosystem properties. Nature 2005;435:806–10.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Bewley GP, Lathrop DP, Sreenivasan KR. Superfluid helium: visualization of quantized vortices. Nature 2006;441:588.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Guet CC, Elowitz MB, Hsing W, Leibler S. Combinatorial synthesis of genetic networks. Science 2002;296:1466–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Hasslacher C, Böhm S. Diabetes and the Kidney. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Sworder DD. Locating, Classifying and Countering Agile Land Vehicles: With Applications to Command Architectures. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Klepac G. REFII Model and Fuzzy Logic as a Tool for Image Classification Based on Image Example. In: Bhattacharyya S, Dutta P, De S, Klepac G, editors. Hybrid Soft Computing for Image Segmentation, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 87–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Longevity Sciences and Medicine.

Blog post
[1]
Taub B. Quitting Smoking Reverses Dopamine Deficits In The Brain. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/brain/quitting-smoking-reverses-dopamine-deficits-in-the-brain/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Digital Television Transition: Questions on the DTV Converter Box Subsidy Program and a DTV Inter-Agency Task Force. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Krisher J. Cell-Matrix Interaction: Activation of the MAP Kinase Signaling Pathway in Salivary Gland Cells. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. Searching for the Mainstream. New York Times 2017:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleLongevity Sciences and Medicine
ISSN (print)2213-655X
Scope

Other styles