How to format your references using the Journal of Peace Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Peace Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyce, Walter (2007) Earth monitoring: vigilance is not enough. Nature 450(7171): 791–792.
A journal article with 2 authors
Goncharenko, Igor & Paul Loubeyre (2005) Neutron and X-ray diffraction study of the broken symmetry phase transition in solid deuterium. Nature 435(7046): 1206–1209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gadsby, David C, Paola Vergani & László Csanády (2006) The ABC protein turned chloride channel whose failure causes cystic fibrosis. Nature 440(7083): 477–483.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pannuzzo, Martina, Antonio Raudino, Danilo Milardi, Carmelo La Rosa & Mikko Karttunen (2013) α-helical structures drive early stages of self-assembly of amyloidogenic amyloid polypeptide aggregate formation in membranes. Scientific Reports 3(September): 2781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Welsh, AH (1996) Aspects of Statistical Inference: Welsh/Aspects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Popper, Arthur N & Richard R Fay (eds) (2014) Perspectives on Auditory Research. Vol. 50. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Van Dyke, Carl & Marc Meketon (2015) Car Scheduling/Trip Planning. In: Bruce W Patty (ed.) Handbook of Operations Research Applications at Railroads. Boston, MA: Springer US, 79–118.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Peace Research.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy (2017) The Most Important Thing You’re Not Discussing With Your Doctor. IFLScience. IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1977) The Title I Program for the Handicapped. 103696. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vidal, Elisa M (2014) Alcohol Disorder with Hip or Knee Surgery: Postoperative Alcohol Disorder-Related Costs and Length of Stay. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda (2008) Justices to Hear Case Testing Rule on Witness. New York Times 12 January: A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyce, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Goncharenko & Loubeyre, 2005; Boyce, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Goncharenko & Loubeyre, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Gadsby, Vergani & Csanády, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Pannuzzo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Peace Research
AbbreviationJ. Peace Res.
ISSN (print)0022-3433
ISSN (online)1460-3578
ScopeSafety Research
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles