How to format your references using the Journal of Peace Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Peace Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aragón, Alejandro M (2013) A measure for the impact of research. Scientific Reports 3: 1649.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, Jianzhong & Yusheng Zhao (2004) Formation of zirconium metallic glass. Nature 430(6997): 332–335.
A journal article with 3 authors
Draghici, Cristian, Tina Wang & David A Spiegel (2015) Concise total synthesis of glucosepane. Science (New York, N.Y.) 350(6258): 294–298.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Baker, Joel, Martin Bizzarro, Nadine Wittig, James Connelly & Henning Haack (2005) Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites. Nature 436(7054): 1127–1131.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou, Christos (2010) Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Xiang, Ning & Gerhard M Sessler (eds) (2015) Acoustics, Information, and Communication: Memorial Volume in Honor of Manfred R. Schroeder. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bannore, Vivek (2006) Regularization for Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction. In: Bogdan Gabrys, Robert J Howlett & Lakhmi C Jain (eds) Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 10th International Conference, KES 2006, Bournemouth, UK, October 9-11, 2006. Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 36–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Peace Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015) The Search For ‘Dark Matter’ And 'Dark Energy’ Just Got Interesting. IFLScience. IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Tax Systems Modernization: Management and Technical Weaknesses Must Be Corrected If Modernization Is to Succeed. AIMD-95-156. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander, Rodney T (2017) Can the Analytical Hierarchy Process Model Be Effectively Applied in the Prioritization of Information Assurance Defense In-Depth Measures? - A Quantitative Study. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly (2006) QUICK BITE/Cranford; Endless Options in a Wrap. New York Times 12 November: 14NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Rosenberg, 2001; Alexander, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang & Zhao, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Draghici, Wang & Spiegel, 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Peace Research
AbbreviationJ. Peace Res.
ISSN (print)0022-3433
ISSN (online)1460-3578
ScopeSafety Research
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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