How to format your references using the Journal of Peace Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Peace Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Witten, Edward (2005) Unravelling string theory. Nature 438(7071): 1085.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kouwenhoven, LP & LC Venema (2000) Heat flow through nanobridges. Nature 404(6781): 943–944.
A journal article with 3 authors
Selmecki, Anna, Anja Forche & Judith Berman (2006) Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans. Science (New York, N.Y.) 313(5785): 367–370.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bondevik, Stein, Jan Mangerud, Hilary H Birks, Steinar Gulliksen & Paula Reimer (2006) Changes in North Atlantic radiocarbon reservoir ages during the Allerød and Younger Dryas. Science (New York, N.Y.) 312(5779): 1514–1517.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard, Matt (2011) SolidWorks® 2011 Parts Bible. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Loftsson, Hrafn, Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson & Sigrún Helgadóttir (eds) (2010) Advances in Natural Language Processing: 7th International Conference on NLP, IceTAL 2010, Reykjavik, Iceland, August 16-18, 2010. Vol. 6233. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stead, Dominic, Franziska Sielker & Tobias Chilla (2016) Macro-regional Strategies: Agents of Europeanization and Rescaling? In: Stefan Gänzle & Kristine Kern (eds) A ‘Macro-Regional’ Europe in the Making: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Evidence. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 99–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Peace Research.

Blog post
Fang, Janet (2015) Early Humans Could Have Been Using Tools 500,000 Years Earlier Than We Thought. IFLScience. IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Federal Communications Commission: Regulatory Fee Process Needs to Be Updated. GAO-12-686. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sammons, Jennifer Lynne (2012) Perceived Benefits of and Barriers to Physical Exercise in People with Severe Mental Illness. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, Ben (2017) Mixture of Upsets and Injuries Leaves Chase for Men’s Title Wide Open. New York Times 2 September: SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Witten, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kouwenhoven & Venema, 2000; Witten, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kouwenhoven & Venema, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Selmecki, Forche & Berman, 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Bondevik et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Peace Research
AbbreviationJ. Peace Res.
ISSN (print)0022-3433
ISSN (online)1460-3578
ScopeSafety Research
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles