How to format your references using the Journal of Peace Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Peace Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, Geoff (2007) Powerful incentives. Nature 448(7155): 741.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorin, David J & F Dean Toste (2007) Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. Nature 446(7134): 395–403.
A journal article with 3 authors
Trainor, Paul A, Linda Ariza-McNaughton & Robb Krumlauf (2002) Role of the isthmus and FGFs in resolving the paradox of neural crest plasticity and prepatterning. Science (New York, N.Y.) 295(5558): 1288–1291.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaya, Sarp, Daniel Schlesinger, Susumu Yamamoto, John T Newberg, Hendrik Bluhm, Hirohito Ogasawara, Tom Kendelewicz, Gordon E Brown Jr, Lars GM Pettersson & Anders Nilsson (2013) Highly compressed two-dimensional form of water at ambient conditions. Scientific Reports 3(January): 1074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marlet, Renaud (2012) Program Specialization. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Allen, Gabrielle, Jarosław Nabrzyski, Edward Seidel, Geert Dick van Albada, Jack Dongarra & Peter MA Sloot (eds) (2009) Computational Science – ICCS 2009: 9th International Conference Baton Rouge, LA, USA, May 25-27, 2009 Proceedings, Part I. Vol. 5544. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rémillard, Bruno, Alexandre Hocquard, Hugues Langlois & Nicolas Papageorgiou (2012) Optimal Hedging of American Options in Discrete Time. In: René A Carmona, Pierre Del Moral, Peng Hu & Nadia Oudjane (eds) Numerical Methods in Finance: Bordeaux, June 2010. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 145–170.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Peace Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2015) Crowdfunded ‘Laser Razor’ Begs The Question Of What The Technology Can And Can’t Do. IFLScience. IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Medicaid: Questionable Practices Boost Federal Payments for School-Based Services. T-HEHS-99-148. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wei, Chun-Shu (2017) Towards Brain Decoding for Real-World Drowsiness Detection. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, Susan (2013) How To Get a Job With a Philosophy Degree. New York Times 13 September: MM40.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2007; Gorin & Toste, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gorin & Toste, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Trainor, Ariza-McNaughton & Krumlauf, 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kaya et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Peace Research
AbbreviationJ. Peace Res.
ISSN (print)0022-3433
ISSN (online)1460-3578
ScopeSafety Research
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles