How to format your references using the Journal of Peace Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Peace Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rieppel, Olivier (2009) Evolution. How did the turtle get its shell? Science (New York, N.Y.) 325(5937): 154–155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boehning, Darren & Solomon H Snyder (2002) Circadian rhythms. Carbon monoxide and clocks. Science (New York, N.Y.) 298(5602): 2339–2340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gottfried, Jay A, John O’Doherty & Raymond J Dolan (2003) Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.) 301(5636): 1104–1107.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dong, Lingqing, Qi Luo, Kui Cheng, Hui Shi, Qi Wang, Wenjian Weng & Wei-Qiang Han (2014) Facet-specific assembly of proteins on SrTiO₃ polyhedral nanocrystals. Scientific Reports 4(May): 5084.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, Russell K (2012) Visual Data Mining. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Torres, Antoni (2015) Clinical Management of Bacterial Pneumonia. Catia Cillóniz (ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Swami, Rajan, Dinesh Kumar, Wahid Khan, Ramakrishna Sistla & Nalini Shastri (2014) Polymer–Drug Conjugate in Focal Drug Delivery. In: Abraham J Domb & Wahid Khan (eds) Focal Controlled Drug Delivery. Boston, MA: Springer US, 117–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Peace Research.

Blog post
Davis, Josh (2015) Risk Of Cancer Increases With Height. IFLScience. IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Basic Agreements With Educational Institutions or Nonprofit Organizations for Award of Research and Development Contracts. B-200941. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mohajer, Reza (2012) A Transcendental Approach to John Coltrane: Applying Concepts of Spirituality to Giant Steps into the Cosmos. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Cooper, Helene (2017) Pentagon, Seeking Transparency, Says 11,000 U.S. Troops Are in Afghanistan. New York Times 30 August: A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rieppel, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Boehning & Snyder, 2002; Rieppel, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boehning & Snyder, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Gottfried, O’Doherty & Dolan, 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dong et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Peace Research
AbbreviationJ. Peace Res.
ISSN (print)0022-3433
ISSN (online)1460-3578
ScopeSafety Research
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

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