How to format your references using the Journal of Peace Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Peace Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Read, Peter (2011) Saturn: storm-clouds brooding on towering heights. Nature 475(7354): 44–45.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ernest, SK & JH Brown (2001) Delayed compensation for missing keystone species by colonization. Science (New York, N.Y.) 292(5514): 101–104.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ristaino, JB, CT Groves & GR Parra (2001) PCR amplification of the Irish potato famine pathogen from historic specimens. Nature 411(6838): 695–697.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barthe, C, P Cony-Makhoul, JV Melo & JR Mahon (2001) Roots of clinical resistance to STI-571 cancer therapy. Science (New York, N.Y.) 293(5538): 2163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goddard Blythe, Sally (2012) Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Quirk, Thomas J (2016) Excel 2013 for Physical Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems. Meghan H Quirk & Howard F Horton (eds) 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Menon, Prahlad G, Srilakshmi M Adhyapak & V Rao Parachuri (2014) Analysis of Cardiac MRI Based Regional Timing of Left Ventricular Mechanical Contraction as a Biomarker for Electrical Dyssynchrony in Heart-Failure Patients. In: Yongjie Jessica Zhang & João Manuel RS Tavares (eds) Computational Modeling of Objects Presented in Images. Fundamentals, Methods, and Applications: 4th International Conference, CompIMAGE 2014, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, September 3-5, 2014. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 48–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Peace Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise (2014) Kepler Team Announces Discovery of Earth-Sized Planet in Habitable Zone. IFLScience. IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) NASA Procurement: Improving Oversight of Construction Projects at the Langley Research Center. NSIAD-92-230. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelayo, Aida Yvette (2017) A Program to Increase Health Literacy for Older Latino Adults Residing in La Habra, California: A Grant Proposal. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kepner, Tyler (2017) Cubs Seize Control as Bloop Cancels Out Blunder. New York Times 10 October: B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Read, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ernest & Brown, 2001; Read, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ernest & Brown, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Ristaino, Groves & Parra, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Barthe et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Peace Research
AbbreviationJ. Peace Res.
ISSN (print)0022-3433
ISSN (online)1460-3578
ScopeSafety Research
Sociology and Political Science
Political Science and International Relations

Other styles