How to format your references using the Journal of Oncological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oncological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inglis T. Developed nations must not fear sending Ebola help. Nature. 2014;514(7524):537.
A journal article with 2 authors
Godley LA, Mondragón A. Molecular biology. Preference by exclusion. Science. 2011;331(6020):1017-1018.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Z, Chakrabarty D, Kaplan DL. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star. Nature. 2006;440(7085):772-775.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Greenwood RC, Franchi IA, Jambon A, Barrat JA, Burbine TH. Oxygen isotope variation in stony-iron meteorites. Science. 2006;313(5794):1763-1765.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prazeres DMF. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Vastola A, ed. The Sustainability of Agro-Food and Natural Resource Systems in the Mediterranean Basin. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Jhunjhunwala A. India’s Mobile Revolution and the Unfinished Tasks: Invited Lecture. In: Kant K, Pemmaraju SV, Sivalingam KM, Wu J, eds. Distributed Computing and Networking: 11th International Conference, ICDCN 2010, Kolkata, India, January 3-6, 2010. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2010:5-5.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oncological Sciences.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Discover The Same Swimming Technique In Over Two Dozen Unrelated Sea Creatures. IFLScience. Published May 14, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Rolodex Cards. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jordan EA. The semiconductor industry and emerging technologies: A study using a modified Delphi method. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Germany Can Inflict Pain on the U.S., as It Has Before. New York Times. June 25, 2014:B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oncological Sciences
ISSN (print)2452-3364

Other styles