How to format your references using the Journal of Oncological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Oncological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greaves JS. Disks around stars and the growth of planetary systems. Science. 2005;307(5706):68-71.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rauschecker JP, Shannon RV. Sending sound to the brain. Science. 2002;295(5557):1025-1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harker DE, Woodward CE, Wooden DH. The dust grains from 9P/Tempel 1 before and after the encounter with Deep Impact. Science. 2005;310(5746):278-280.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Xiao M, Martin I, Yablonovitch E, Jiang HW. Electrical detection of the spin resonance of a single electron in a silicon field-effect transistor. Nature. 2004;430(6998):435-439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Firth-Cozens J, Harrison J. How to Survive in Medicine. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Gourbesville P, Cunge J, Caignaert G, eds. Advances in Hydroinformatics: SIMHYDRO 2012 – New Frontiers of Simulation. Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvi SSD, Vivek SS, Shukla D, Rangan Chandrasekaran P. Efficient and Provably Secure Certificateless Multi-receiver Signcryption. In: Baek J, Bao F, Chen K, Lai X, eds. Provable Security: Second International Conference, ProvSec 2008, Shanghai, China, October 30 - November 1, 2008. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2008:52-67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Oncological Sciences.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Launches OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Mission On A Journey To Discover Our Origins. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisitions: OCC’s Procurement of Laser Printers Is Proper but ADP Statutes Apply. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spindel SA. Evaluation of Optical Sensor Platforms for Multiplexed Detection of Proteins. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Signs of Vitality In the Hamptons. New York Times. September 1, 2017:ST10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Oncological Sciences
ISSN (print)2452-3364

Other styles