How to format your references using the European Journal of Mechanics / A Solids citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Mechanics / A Solids. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruttimann, J., 2007. Cell mates. Nature 450, 756–757.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cassenaer, S., Laurent, G., 2012. Conditional modulation of spike-timing-dependent plasticity for olfactory learning. Nature 482, 47–52.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kang, M.-K., Kim, S.J., Kim, H.J., 2014. Fabrication of high performance thin-film transistors via pressure-induced nucleation. Sci. Rep. 4, 6858.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cho, J., Jeon, S., Wilson, S.A., Liu, L.V., Kang, E.A., Braymer, J.J., Lim, M.H., Hedman, B., Hodgson, K.O., Valentine, J.S., Solomon, E.I., Nam, W., 2011. Structure and reactivity of a mononuclear non-haem iron(III)-peroxo complex. Nature 478, 502–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach, J., 2010. Excel® VBA Programming For Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.
An edited book
AbuRahma, A.F., Bergan, J.J. (Eds.), 2007. Noninvasive Vascular Diagnosis: A Practical Guide to Therapy, Second Edition. ed. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Revathi, P., Hemalatha, M., 2013. SMS Based HPCCDD Algorithm for the Identification of Leaf Spot Diseases, in: S, M., Kumar, S.S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Signal and Image Processing 2012 (ICSIP 2012): Volume 1, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 49–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Mechanics / A Solids.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Dragonflies Can Predict Their Prey’s Next Move [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Homeland Security: Progress Continues, but Challenges Remain on Department’s Management of Information Technology (No. GAO-06-598T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tetley, J., 2009. An investigation of self-authorship, hope, and meaning in life among second-year college students (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2016. In Her Shoes. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruttimann, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ruttimann, 2007, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cassenaer and Laurent, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Cho et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Mechanics / A Solids
AbbreviationEur. J. Mech. A Solids
ISSN (print)0997-7538
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
General Materials Science
General Physics and Astronomy

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