How to format your references using the Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collins, M.O.: Cell biology. Evolving cell signals. Science. 325, 1635–1636 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Silver, P.G., Behn, M.D.: Intermittent plate tectonics? Science. 319, 85–88 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, J., Zhang, C., Qiao, H.: The significance of p40 expression in sclerosing hemangioma of lung. Sci. Rep. 4, 6102 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sfeir, M.Y., Wang, F., Huang, L., Chuang, C.-C., Hone, J., O’brien, S.P., Heinz, T.F., Brus, L.E.: Probing electronic transitions in individual carbon nanotubes by Rayleigh scattering. Science. 306, 1540–1543 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stolarski, T.A., Tobe, S.: Rolling Contacts. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2000)
An edited book
Grundy, S.M. ed: Atlas of Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome. Springer, New York, NY (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Fiser, O., Brazda, V.: Experimental Validation of FSO Channel Models. In: Uysal, M., Capsoni, C., Ghassemlooy, Z., Boucouvalas, A., and Udvary, E. (eds.) Optical Wireless Communications: An Emerging Technology. pp. 69–86. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications.

Blog post
Taub, B.: Baby Macaques Smile In Their Sleep, Just Like Humans,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Attack Warning: NORAD’s Communications System Segment Replacement Program Should Be Reassessed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1988)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen, R.T.: Exploring the Lived Experiences of Program Managers Regarding an Automated Logistics Environment, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: After Long Hours, the Red Sox Keep a Slim Lead, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optimization Theory and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Optim. Theory Appl.
ISSN (print)0022-3239
ISSN (online)1573-2878
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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