How to format your references using the Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lyons, T.W.: Ocean science. Ironing out ocean chemistry at the dawn of animal life. Science. 321, 923–924 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lin, J.Y., Fisher, D.E.: Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. Nature. 445, 843–850 (2007)
A journal article with 3 authors
Tilman, D., Reich, P.B., Knops, J.M.H.: Biodiversity and ecosystem stability in a decade-long grassland experiment. Nature. 441, 629–632 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pimenta, B.V.S., Haddad, C.F.B., Nascimento, L.B., Cruz, C.A.G., Pombal, J.P., Jr: Comment on “Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide.” Science. 309, 1999; author reply 1999 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kula, G., Raab, M., Stahn, S.: Beyond Smart Beta. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2017)
An edited book
Burge, M.J., Bowyer, K.W. eds: Handbook of Iris Recognition. Springer, London (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Das, S., Senior, B.A.: Injection and Anesthetic Techniques. In: Kountakis, S.E. and Önerci, M. (eds.) Rhinologic and Sleep Apnea Surgical Techniques. pp. 41–47. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2007)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Live Webcast of Expeditions 41/42 Crew to ISS,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: GAO Research Guide: Computers and Information Technology Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bade, L.L.: Extending the benefits of alcohol and drug treatment: An exploration of volunteer utilization and delivery of recovery services, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Reason to Believe But Also To Be Cautious, (2009)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optimization Theory and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Optim. Theory Appl.
ISSN (print)0022-3239
ISSN (online)1573-2878
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles