How to format your references using the Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knowles, J.: Chemistry. Seeing is believing. Science. 299, 2002–2003 (2003)
A journal article with 2 authors
Enemark, E.J., Joshua-Tor, L.: Mechanism of DNA translocation in a replicative hexameric helicase. Nature. 442, 270–275 (2006)
A journal article with 3 authors
Munoz, F., Couteron, P., Hubbell, S.P.: Comment on “Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality.” Science. 336, 1639; author reply 1639 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dougherty, M.K., Cao, H., Khurana, K.K., Hunt, G.J., Provan, G., Kellock, S., Burton, M.E., Burk, T.A., Bunce, E.J., Cowley, S.W.H., Kivelson, M.G., Russell, C.T., Southwood, D.J.: Saturn’s magnetic field revealed by the Cassini Grand Finale. Science. 362, (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hickey, R.: A Dictionary of Varieties of English. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken (2013)
An edited book
Luna, A.: Diffusion MRI Outside the Brain: A Case-Based Review and Clinical Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Schneider, J.K.: Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensors. In: Ratha, N.K. and Govindaraju, V. (eds.) Advances in Biometrics: Sensors, Algorithms and Systems. pp. 63–74. Springer, London (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications.

Blog post
Andrew, D.: World Set For Hottest Year On Record: World Meteorological Organization,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: No Child Left Behind Act: Education Actions Needed to Improve Implementation and Evaluation of Supplemental Educational Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2006)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parker, E.C.: Perceptions of youth with diabetes and their parents/guardians about youth eating habits and nutrition-related difficulties, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, I. by N.: An Essentially American Narrative, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optimization Theory and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Optim. Theory Appl.
ISSN (print)0022-3239
ISSN (online)1573-2878
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles