How to format your references using the Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Masood, E.: Expert assessments can work if lessons are learned. Nature. 490, 145 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherman, G., Visscher, P.K.: Honeybee colonies achieve fitness through dancing. Nature. 419, 920–922 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Michael, H.A., Mulligan, A.E., Harvey, C.F.: Seasonal oscillations in water exchange between aquifers and the coastal ocean. Nature. 436, 1145–1148 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhou, J., Hu, Y., Yin, Z.-Q., Wang, Z.D., Zhu, S.-L., Xue, Z.-Y.: High fidelity quantum state transfer in electromechanical systems with intermediate coupling. Sci. Rep. 4, 6237 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Xiu, L.: Nanometer Frequency Synthesis Beyond the Phase-Locked Loop. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2012)
An edited book
Brown, S., Grävingholt, J. eds: The Securitization of Foreign Aid. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Calvillo-Gámez, E.H., Cairns, P., Cox, A.L.: Assessing the Core Elements of the Gaming Experience. In: Bernhaupt, R. (ed.) Evaluating User Experience in Games: Concepts and Methods. pp. 47–71. Springer, London (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Immunizing Frogs Against a Killer Fungus,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: H.R. 4326: Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1981. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1982)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Valenzuela, B.D.: Thirty-Year-Old Mulberry Field, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J.: The Ultimate Hunt: Sheep, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Optimization Theory and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Optim. Theory Appl.
ISSN (print)0022-3239
ISSN (online)1573-2878
ScopeManagement Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

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