How to format your references using the Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bendor, D. Eppendorf. Play It Again, Brain. Science 2013, 342, 574.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulcahy, N.J.; Call, J. Apes Save Tools for Future Use. Science 2006, 312, 1038–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai, G.; Zhang, Y.; Hao, J. Tuning of Near-Infrared Luminescence of SrTiO3:Ni2+ Thin Films Grown on Piezoelectric PMN-PT via Strain Engineering. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5724.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hime, T.; Reichardt, P.A.; Plourde, B.L.T.; Robertson, T.L.; Wu, C.-E.; Ustinov, A.V.; Clarke, J. Solid-State Qubits with Current-Controlled Coupling. Science 2006, 314, 1427–1429.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goldstein, L.S.B.; Schneider, M. Stem Cells for Dummies®; Wiley Publishing, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9781118269244.
An edited book
Mathematical Technology of Networks: Bielefeld, December 2013; Mugnolo, D., Ed.; Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 128; ISBN 9783319166186.
A chapter in an edited book
Artschwager, A.; Fischer, T.; Stellmach, D.; Yepes, R.; Weiß, M.; De Sabbata, P.; Gessa, N.; D’Agosta, G.; Busanelli, M.; Novelli, C.; et al. New Quality of Partnership in the Textile World – Concepts and Technologies. In Transforming Clothing Production into a Demand-driven, Knowledge-based, High-tech Industry: The Leapfrog Paradigm; Walter, L., Kartsounis, G.-A., Carosio, S., Eds.; Springer: London, 2009; pp. 141–200 ISBN 9781848826076.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Japan’s Whaling Gambit Shows It’s Time To Strengthen The Rule Of Science In Law (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Guaranteed Student Loan Program Bankruptcies; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robert, N.A. Cortile: World Building & the Traveler Archetype. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana: Lafayette, LA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B.; Rosenberg, E. Worker Trying to Prevent Vehicle Break-Ins Is Fatally Shot; Police Seek 3 Men. New York Times 2015, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography
ISSN (online)2410-387X

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