How to format your references using the Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Semenza, G.L. Life with Oxygen. Science 2007, 318, 62–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank, S.A.; Nowak, M.A. Cell Biology: Developmental Predisposition to Cancer. Nature 2003, 422, 494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, S.H.; Oe, T.; Blair, I.A. Vitamin C-Induced Decomposition of Lipid Hydroperoxides to Endogenous Genotoxins. Science 2001, 292, 2083–2086.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Moreno-Mayar, J.V.; Potter, B.A.; Vinner, L.; Steinrücken, M.; Rasmussen, S.; Terhorst, J.; Kamm, J.A.; Albrechtsen, A.; Malaspinas, A.-S.; Sikora, M.; et al. Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan Genome Reveals First Founding Population of Native Americans. Nature 2018, 553, 203–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chinesta, F.; Cescotto, S.; Cueto, E.; Lorong, P. Natural Element Method for the Simulation of Structures and Processes; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013; ISBN 9781118616901.
An edited book
Human Cell Transformation: Role of Stem Cells and the Microenvironment; Rhim, J.S., Kremer, R., Eds.; Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; Springer: New York, NY, 2012; Vol. 720; ISBN 9781461402534.
A chapter in an edited book
Mitra, A.; Zaman, S. Phytoplankton Carbon Stock. In Blue Carbon Reservoir of the Blue Planet; Zaman, S., Ed.; Springer India: New Delhi, 2015; pp. 143–201 ISBN 9788132221067.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Coming Soon: A Telescope Large Enough to Spot Alien Life Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Examination of Disbursing Transactions, Naval Supply Corps School, Athens, Georgia; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1971;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, C.T. Molecular Pharmacodynamics of Chemotherapy: Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Inhibitors as Chemosensitizers. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2005.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Treaty Doesn’t Give Foreign Defendants Special Status in U.S. Courts, Justices Rule. New York Times 2006, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography
ISSN (online)2410-387X

Other styles