How to format your references using the Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blank, D.A. Chemistry. A Sideways Glance at Chemical Reactivity. Science 2008, 322, 1056–1057.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rhoten, D.; Parker, A. Education. Risks and Rewards of an Interdisciplinary Research Path. Science 2004, 306, 2046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xia, K.; Vanner, M.R.; Twamley, J. An Opto-Magneto-Mechanical Quantum Interface between Distant Superconducting Qubits. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5571.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Otomo, T.; Tomchick, D.R.; Otomo, C.; Panchal, S.C.; Machius, M.; Rosen, M.K. Structural Basis of Actin Filament Nucleation and Processive Capping by a Formin Homology 2 Domain. Nature 2005, 433, 488–494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cherian, A. Energy and Global Climate Change; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118846070.
An edited book
Genitourinary Radiology: Male Genital Tract, Adrenal and Retroperitoneum: The Pathologic Basis; Dogra, V.S., MacLennan, G.T., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; ISBN 9781447148982.
A chapter in an edited book
Obrosova, I.G. Hyperglycemia-Initiated Mechanisms in Diabetic Neuropathy. In Diabetic Neuropathy: Clinical Management; Veves, A., Malik, R.A., Eds.; Clinical Diabetes; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2007; pp. 69–90 ISBN 9781588296269.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Doctors Prescribe More Antibiotics As Day Wears On Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highlights of a GAO Forum: Managing the Supplier Base in the 21st Century; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, J.R. Staging Vietnamese America: Music and the Performance of Vietnamese American Identities. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. Kickers Form Bond And Find Sorority. New York Times 2010, D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography
ISSN (online)2410-387X

Other styles