How to format your references using the Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldberg, D.E. Parasitology. When the host is smarter than the parasite. Science 2002, 296, 482–483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolf, A.; Anderegg, W.R.L. Comment on “Changes in climatic water balance drive downhill shifts in plant species’ optimum elevations.” Science 2011, 334, 177; author reply 177.
A journal article with 3 authors
Srianand, R.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C. The cosmic microwave background radiation temperature at a redshift of 2.34. Nature 2000, 408, 931–935.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, X.; Beaulieu, J.-M.; Sotnikova, T.D.; Gainetdinov, R.R.; Caron, M.G. Tryptophan hydroxylase-2 controls brain serotonin synthesis. Science 2004, 305, 217.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson, R.K. Visual Data Mining; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2012; ISBN 9781118444818.
An edited book
Dator, J.A. Mutative Media: Communication Technologies and Power Relations in the Past, Present, and Futures; Sweeney, J.A., Yee, A.M., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Social Networks; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; ISBN 9783319078083.
A chapter in an edited book
García-Magariño, I.; Gómez-Sanz, J.J.; Fuentes-Fernández, R. Model Transformation By-Example: An Algorithm for Generating Many-to-Many Transformation Rules in Several Model Transformation Languages. In Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: Second International Conference, ICMT 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, June 29-30, 2009. Proceedings; Paige, R.F., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 52–66 ISBN 9783642024078.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography.

Blog post
Hale, T. Boeing Wants To Race SpaceX To The Surface Of Mars Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highway Infrastructure: FHWA Has Acted to Disclose the Limitations of Its Environmental Review Analysis; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2003;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klimek, D.L. Antigone’s reach: A feminine model for today’s businesswoman. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S. In Class A, Yankees Are Still Winners. New York Times 2002, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography
ISSN (online)2410-387X

Other styles