How to format your references using the Cryptography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cryptography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grünbaum, D. Ecology. Why did you Lévy? Science 2011, 332, 1514–1515.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vafai, S.B.; Mootha, V.K. Medicine. A common pathway for a rare disease? Science 2013, 342, 1453–1454.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaminski, J.; Call, J.; Fischer, J. Word learning in a domestic dog: evidence for “fast mapping.” Science 2004, 304, 1682–1683.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Scott, J.J.; Oh, D.-C.; Yuceer, M.C.; Klepzig, K.D.; Clardy, J.; Currie, C.R. Bacterial protection of beetle-fungus mutualism. Science 2008, 322, 63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soustelle, M. Handbook of Heterogenous Kinetics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013; ISBN 9781118557730.
An edited book
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Cognizance in Wireless Communication & Image Processing: ICRCWIP-2014; Afzalpulkar, N., Srivastava, V., Singh, G., Bhatnagar, D., Eds.; Springer India: New Delhi, 2016; ISBN 9788132226369.
A chapter in an edited book
Shevchenko, E.V.; Talapin, D.V. Self-assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into ordered superstructures. In Semiconductor Nanocrystal Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Assembly, Spectroscopy and Applications; Rogach, A.L., Ed.; Springer: Vienna, 2008; pp. 119–169 ISBN 9783211752357.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cryptography.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Climate Change Took Away Pterosaurs’ Teeth Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Project; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1997;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shetter, R.M. Assaulting the littorals: The development and evolution of a dedicated American amphibious assault force. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W. The Illusion of Savings. New York Times 2010, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCryptography
ISSN (online)2410-387X

Other styles