How to format your references using the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Flower HM. Electrochemistry. A moving oxygen story. Nature 2000;407:305–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakob M, Hilaire J. Climate science: Unburnable fossil-fuel reserves. Nature 2015;517:150–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nakagaki T, Yamada H, Tóth A. Maze-solving by an amoeboid organism. Nature 2000;407:470.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen K, Cole J, Conger C, Draskovic J, Lohr M, Klein K, et al. Granular materials: packing grains by thermal cycling. Nature 2006;442:257.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiske JR, Fiske CA. The Big Book of Benefit Auctions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Chrisler JC, McCreary DR, editors. Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology: Volume 2: Gender Research in Social and Applied Psychology. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Malone T, Jackman C. Animated Horse Play. In: Jackman C, editor. Adapting War Horse: Cognition, the Spectator, and a Sense of Play, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016, p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mars Rover Observations Suggest Giant Crater Used To Hold An Ancient Lake. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Problems in the Federal Funding of School Bus Driver Training Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson J. Differences in physical activity behavior between insulin using diabetics versus non-insulin using diabetics. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS. Mueller Inquiry Seeks Documents On Trump Firings. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
ISSN (print)1701-2163

Other styles