How to format your references using the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston D. Mean what you say. Nature 2009;458:563.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherkow JS, Greely HT. Genomics. What if extinction is not forever? Science 2013;340:32–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNamara AK, van Keken PE, Karato S-I. Development of anisotropic structure in the Earth’s lower mantle by solid-state convection. Nature 2002;416:310–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sikes EL, Samson CR, Guilderson TP, Howard WR. Old radiocarbon ages in the southwest Pacific Ocean during the last glacial period and deglaciation. Nature 2000;405:555–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chance DM. Essays in Derivatives. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Brevini TAL. Pluripotency in Domestic Animal Cells. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ackermann H, Röglin H, Schellbach U, Schweer N. Chapter 4. Analysis of Algorithms. In: Müller-Hannemann M, Schirra S, editors. Algorithm Engineering: Bridging the Gap between Algorithm Theory and Practice, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 127–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada.

Blog post
Luntz S. Huge “Bathtub Ring” Left By Oil Spill. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Deaf Education: Costs and Student Characteristics at Federally Assisted Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson YM. Federal Managers’ Use of Evidence (Performance Measurement Data and Evaluation Results): Are We There Yet? Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson M. In Chelsea Bombing Trial, a Lesson on How a Cellphone Becomes a Trigger. New York Times 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
ISSN (print)1701-2163

Other styles