How to format your references using the Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Saper CB. Biomedicine. Life, the universe, and body temperature. Science 2006;314:773–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Otto SP, Jarne P. Evolution. Haploids--hapless or happening? Science 2001;292:2441–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pichersky E, Noel JP, Dudareva N. Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science 2006;311:808–11.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bahatyrova S, Frese RN, Siebert CA, Olsen JD, Van Der Werf KO, Van Grondelle R, et al. The native architecture of a photosynthetic membrane. Nature 2004;430:1058–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bower JA. Statistical Methods for Food Science. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Passerini K. Information Technology for Small Business: Managing the Digital Enterprise. New York, NY: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Nebel B. Editorial. In: Prassler E, Zöllner M, Bischoff R, Burgard W, Haschke R, Hägele M, et al., editors. Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments: Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 45–7.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada.

Blog post
Luntz S. Can Magnetic Stimulation Help Alzheimer’s Patients Think Clearly? IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Still Exist in the Aviation Security System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Ros KM. A content analysis of television ads: Does current practice maximize cognitive processing? Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Hurdle J. Harrisburg Sees Path to Restructuring Debts Without Bankruptcy Filing. New York Times 2013:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada
ISSN (print)1701-2163

Other styles