How to format your references using the Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Bowles, Warriors, levelers, and the role of conflict in human social evolution, Science. 336 (2012) 876–879.
A journal article with 2 authors
N.A. Simmons, H. Gurrola, Multiple seismic discontinuities near the base of the transition zone in the Earth’s mantle, Nature. 405 (2000) 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.Z. Coyte, J. Schluter, K.R. Foster, The ecology of the microbiome: Networks, competition, and stability, Science. 350 (2015) 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Wu, X. Mai, H. Tang, Y. Ge, Y.-J. Luo, C. Liu, Dissociable somatotopic representations of Chinese action verbs in the motor and premotor cortex, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2049.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.F. Yu, Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
K.E. Cherry, ed., Traumatic Stress and Long-Term Recovery: Coping with Disasters and Other Negative Life Events, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
On behalf of the membership of RILEM TC 219-ACS, P.J. Nixon, I. Sims, RILEM Recommended Test Method: AAR-2—Detection of Potential Alkali-Reactivity—Accelerated Mortar-Bar Test Method for Aggregates, in: P.J. Nixon, I. Sims (Eds.), RILEM Recommendations for the Prevention of Damage by Alkali-Aggregate Reactions in New Concrete Structures: State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 219-ACS, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2016: pp. 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Find Bacteria That “Breathe” Uranium, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, HEW Audits of Federal Grants and Contracts Administered by Institutions of Higher Education, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.M. Rodriguez, Experimental Evaluation of Cooling Effectiveness and Water Conservation in a Poultry House Using Flow Blurring Atomizers, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, Carson McCullers at 100, New York Times. (2017) BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X
ISSN (print)2590-1591

Other styles