How to format your references using the Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Ball, Carl Djerassi (1923-2015), Nature. 519 (2015) 34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Y. Kawatani, K. Hamilton, Weakened stratospheric quasibiennial oscillation driven by increased tropical mean upwelling, Nature. 497 (2013) 478–481.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Tomonaga, Y. Uwano, T. Saito, How dolphins see the world: a comparison with chimpanzees and humans, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3717.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. O’Hora, R. Dale, P.T. Piiroinen, F. Connolly, Local dynamics in decision making: The evolution of preference within and across decisions, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.F. DeRosa, Advances in Polymer Chemistry and Methods Reported in Recent US Patents, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2008.
An edited book
A.N. Ince, A. Bragg, eds., Recent Advances in Modeling and Simulation Tools for Communication Networks and Services, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Ledger, L. Vidovich, T. O’Donoghue, The Research Approach, in: L. Vidovich, T. O’Donoghue (Eds.), Global to Local Curriculum Policy Processes: The Enactment of the International Baccalaureate in Remote International Schools, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 57–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Fly-By Missions: What Is The Point When We Have The Technology To Go Into Orbit?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Pedestrians and Cyclists: Cities, States, and DOT Are Implementing Actions to Improve Safety, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.I. Emenyonu, Barriers to HIV care in rural Uganda, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
T.S. Bernard, Prosecutors Open Criminal Investigation Into Sweeping Equifax Data Breach, New York Times. (2017) B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X
ISSN (print)2590-1591

Other styles