How to format your references using the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. Changing the face of training for science at the interface. Nature 2000;404:315–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waters MR, Stafford TW Jr. Redefining the age of Clovis: implications for the peopling of the Americas. Science 2007;315:1122–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bar-Yam Y, Harmon D, de Bivort B. Systems biology. Attractors and democratic dynamics. Science 2009;323:1016–7.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Renard VT, Duchemin I, Niida Y, et al. Metallic behaviour in SOI quantum wells with strong intervalley scattering. Sci Rep 2013;3:2011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Popescu D, Gharbi A, Stefanoiu D, et al. Process Control Design for Industrial Applications. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2017.
An edited book
Wüthrich MV. Financial Modeling, Actuarial Valuation and Solvency in Insurance. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferraro R. Transformation of the Electromagnetic Field. In: Ferraro R, ed. Einstein’s Space-Time: An Introduction to Special and General Relativity. New York, NY: : Springer 2007. 117–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Davis J. Canada Approves Genetically Engineered Salmon For Sale. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Shuttle: NASA Must Reduce Costs Further to Operate Within Future Projected Funds. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Burchman EK. A dialogue on improvisation, space and melody: Larry Koonse’s approach to improvisation. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. After Shake-Up, Pandora Picks Chief of Sling TV To Be Its New C.E.O. New York Times. 2017;:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0022-3050
ISSN (online)1468-330X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles