How to format your references using the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Abbott A. CERN considers chasing up hints of Higgs boson. European Laboratory for Particle Physics. Nature 2000;407:8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Shapiro B, Hofreiter M. A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA. Science 2014;343:1236573.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Shubin N, Tabin C, Carroll S. Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty. Nature 2009;457:818–23.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Lorch JM, Meteyer CU, Behr MJ, et al. Experimental infection of bats with Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome. Nature 2011;480:376–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Malpass DB, Band EI. Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.
An edited book
1
Soiffer RJ, editor. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Totowa, NJ: : Humana Press 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Zentes J, Morschett D, Schramm-Klein H. Online Retailing and Multichannel Retailing. In: Morschett D, Schramm-Klein H, eds. Strategic Retail Management: Text and International Cases. Wiesbaden: : Gabler Verlag 2012. 71–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
1
Andrews R. A Bird’s Internal Compass Is Made Out Of A Light-Sensitive Protein. IFLScience. 2016.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Research Continues on a Variety of Factors That Contribute to Motor Vehicle Crashes. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Gonzalez ER. Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Walsh MW. Looking for Cash, Congress Finds Some in a Corporate Pension Rule Tweak. New York Times. 2012;:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0022-3050
ISSN (online)1468-330X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health
Surgery

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