How to format your references using the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. Public library set to turn publisher as boycott looms. Nature. 2001;412:469.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wolff JO, Gorb SN. Radial arrangement of Janus-like setae permits friction control in spiders. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1101.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rikkinen J, Oksanen I, Lohtander K. Lichen guilds share related cyanobacterial symbionts. Science. 2002;297:357.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dickey JO, Marcus SL, de Viron O, et al. Recent Earth oblateness variations: unraveling climate and postglacial rebound effects. Science. 2002;298:1975–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borchard-Tuch C, Groß M. Was Biotronik alles kann. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2005.
An edited book
Peris-Ortiz M, Álvarez-García J, editors. Action-Based Quality Management: Strategy and Tools for Continuous Improvement. Cham: Springer International Publishing 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ford JD, Bell T, St-Hilaire-Gravel D. Vulnerability of Community Infrastructure to Climate Change in Nunavut: A Case Study From Arctic Bay. In: Hovelsrud GK, Smit B, eds. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Arctic Regions. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands 2010:107–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E. Goldfish Tumor Removal Operation Went Swimmingly. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airline Industry: Potential Mergers and Acquisitions Driven by Financial and Competitive Pressures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz E. School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik JF. Death Is Inevitable. Financial Turmoil Afterward Isn’t. New York Times. 2017;B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
AbbreviationJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0022-3050
ISSN (online)1468-330X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Psychiatry and Mental health

Other styles