How to format your references using the Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Zhuang X. Molecular biology. Unraveling DNA condensation with optical tweezers. Science. 2004;305:188–90.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kuo I-FW, Mundy CJ. An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the aqueous liquid-vapor interface. Science. 2004;303:658–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hanotte O, Dessie T, Kemp S. Ecology. Time to tap Africa’s livestock genomes. Science. 2010;328:1640–1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mold JE, Michaëlsson J, Burt TD, Muench MO, Beckerman KP, Busch MP, et al. Maternal alloantigens promote the development of tolerogenic fetal regulatory T cells in utero. Science. 2008;322:1562–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Jarry P, Beneat J. Advanced Design Techniques and Realizations of Microwave and RF Filters. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. Cleveland HH, Harris KS, Wiebe RP, editors. Substance Abuse Recovery in College: Community Supported Abstinence. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sinha S, Pandey PC, Sharma LK, Nathawat MS, Kumar P, Kanga S. Remote Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for Different LULC Features of a Moist Deciduous Tropical Forest Region. In: Srivastava PK, Mukherjee S, Gupta M, Islam T, editors. Remote Sensing Applications in Environmental Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 57–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Quantum Computing Breakthrough Leads To System Remaining Stable For 10 Times Longer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FCC: Redesignating and Reallocating Frequency Bands and Establishing Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and Fixed Satellite Services. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: OGC-96-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Griner KF. The Effectiveness of the Integrative Career Counseling Model [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. George N. Still Too Good, Too Bad or Invisible. New York Times. 2013 Feb 17;AR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Negative Results in BioMedicine
AbbreviationJ. Negat. Results Biomed.
ISSN (online)1477-5751
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
General Medicine
General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics

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