How to format your references using the Journal of Nanophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Diamond, “Anthropology. The astonishing micropygmies,” Science 306(5704), 2047–2048 (2004).
A journal article with 2 authors
P. A. Sharp and R. Langer, “Research agenda. Promoting convergence in biomedical science,” Science 333(6042), 527 (2011).
A journal article with 3 authors
S. T. Turvey, O. R. Green, and R. N. Holdaway, “Cortical growth marks reveal extended juvenile development in New Zealand moa,” Nature 435(7044), 940–943 (2005).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. M. Krasnow et al., “Meeting now suggests we will meet again: implications for debates on the evolution of cooperation,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1747 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bma, Everyday Medical Ethics and Law, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2013).
An edited book
R. Jetter, Ed., The Formation, Structure and Activity of Phytochemicals, 1st ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).
A chapter in an edited book
J. Horvath, L. Hoge, and R. Cameron, “Making and Using Sewing Patterns,” in Practical Fashion Tech: Wearable Technologies for Costuming, Cosplay, and Everyday, L. Hoge and R. Cameron, Eds., pp. 57–80, Apress, Berkeley, CA (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanophotonics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Underground Map Reveals Hidden Secrets Of Stonehenge And Nearby Monstrous ‘Super Henge,’” IFLScience, 10 September 2014, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Space Projects: Astrophysics Facility Program Contains Cost and Technical Risks,” NSIAD-94-80, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. M. Aparicio, “Examining Latina/o STEM degree aspirations,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
L. Baker, “A Neighborhood Rises From the Waterfront,” in New York Times, p. RE12 (2006).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanophotonics
AbbreviationJ. Nanophotonics
ISSN (online)1934-2608
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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