How to format your references using the Journal of Nanophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
U. Leonhardt, “A laboratory analogue of the event horizon using slow light in an atomic medium,” Nature 415(6870), 406–409 (2002).
A journal article with 2 authors
R. R. Snook and D. J. Hosken, “Sperm death and dumping in Drosophila,” Nature 428(6986), 939–941 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
T. A. Clark, C. W. Sugnet, and M. Ares Jr, “Genomewide analysis of mRNA processing in yeast using splicing-specific microarrays,” Science 296(5569), 907–910 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. S. Akbari et al., “Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3954 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. E. Morris, G. Geiger, and H. A. Fine, Handbook on Material and Energy Balance Calculations in Material Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011).
An edited book
Z. Bai, Spectral Analysis of Large Dimensional Random Matrices, J. W. Silverstein, Ed., Springer, New York, NY (2010).
A chapter in an edited book
A. Cerasa, F. Torti, and D. Perrotta, “Heteroscedasticity, Multiple Populations and Outliers in Trade Data,” in Topics on Methodological and Applied Statistical Inference, T. Di Battista, E. Moreno, and W. Racugno, Eds., pp. 43–50, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanophotonics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “Schizophrenia Revealed To Be 8 Genetically Distinct Disorders,” IFLScience, 15 September 2014 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Review of Administration of Selected Aspects of the Student-Tutor Education Program by the National Endowment for the Humanities,” B-158811, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1971).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K. N. Burns, “Impact of Cognitive Tasks on Gait Parameters in Collegiate Athletes,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Vecsey, “For the Yankees, A Chill in the Air,” in New York Times, p. SP6 (2010).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanophotonics
AbbreviationJ. Nanophotonics
ISSN (online)1934-2608
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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