How to format your references using the Journal of Nanophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Putterman, “A physicist links magnetism, force and fatigue,” Nature 454(7202), 257 (2008).
A journal article with 2 authors
J. R. Usherwood and A. M. Wilson, “Biomechanics: no force limit on greyhound sprint speed,” Nature 438(7069), 753–754 (2005).
A journal article with 3 authors
R. D. H. Barrett, S. M. Rogers, and D. Schluter, “Natural selection on a major armor gene in threespine stickleback,” Science 322(5899), 255–257 (2008).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Mall et al., “Reversibility of citrate synthase allows autotrophic growth of a thermophilic bacterium,” Science 359(6375), 563–567 (2018).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L. Snopek, The Complete Guide to Portfolio Construction and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, UK (2012).
An edited book
P. Atzeni, D. Cheung, and S. Ram, Eds., Conceptual Modeling: 31st International Conference ER 2012, Florence, Italy, October 15-18, 2012. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012).
A chapter in an edited book
H. J. M. Meijer et al., “Contributions and Risks of Radiation Therapy in Managing Cancer During Pregnancy,” in Managing Cancer during Pregnancy, H. A. Azim Jr, Ed., pp. 41–54, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanophotonics.

Blog post
T. Hale, “What Happens If You Put Red Hot Steel On A Frozen Lake?,” IFLScience, 26 January 2017 (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Need To Improve System for Managing Capitalized Equipment in the Bureau of Indian Affairs,” B-114868, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1968).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
H. J. Hong, “Acrolein Modification of Human Apolipoprotein A-I Impairs Binding to Phosphatidylglycerol and Lipopolysaccharide of Gram-Negative Bacteria,” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky and A. Smale, “Foes of Russia in Crimea Block Shipments of Food,” in New York Times, p. A11 (2015).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanophotonics
AbbreviationJ. Nanophotonics
ISSN (online)1934-2608
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles