How to format your references using the Journal of Nanophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Sodeoka, “Chemistry. Efficient fluorination of organic molecules with chiral anions,” Science 334(6063), 1651–1652 (2011).
A journal article with 2 authors
Z. Shao and S. M. Haile, “A high-performance cathode for the next generation of solid-oxide fuel cells,” Nature 431(7005), 170–173 (2004).
A journal article with 3 authors
S. C. R. Rafkin, M. R. V. Sta Maria, and T. I. Michaels, “Simulation of the atmospheric thermal circulation of a martian volcano using a mesoscale numerical model,” Nature 419(6908), 697–699 (2002).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Fliessbach et al., “Social comparison affects reward-related brain activity in the human ventral striatum,” Science 318(5854), 1305–1308 (2007).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
C. Cauvin, F. Escobar, and A. Serradj, New Approaches in Thematic Cartography, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010).
An edited book
T. Benson, Principles of Health Interoperability: SNOMED CT, HL7 and FHIR, 3rd ed. 2016, G. Grieve, Ed., Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
R. J. Hosking and R. L. Dewar, “Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD),” in Fundamental Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics, R. L. Dewar, Ed., pp. 157–201, Springer, Singapore (2016).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanophotonics.

Blog post
J. Fang, “Killer Worm Sperm Stops Different Species From Breeding,” IFLScience, 30 July 2014, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Response to Specific Questions on the Indian Point Probabilistic Safety Study,” RCED-83-158, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1983).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Brasseaux, “The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and Land Changes in Louisiana Deltaic Plain, Saint Bernard Parish, Louisiana,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana (2015).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. M. Chapman and B. Vlasic, “Strong Domestic Sales Help Lift Chrysler’s Results,” in New York Times, p. B3 (2012).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanophotonics
AbbreviationJ. Nanophotonics
ISSN (online)1934-2608
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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