How to format your references using the Journal of Nanophotonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanophotonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. R. Perez, “Public health and biosecurity. H5N1 debates: hung up on the wrong questions,” Science 335(6070), 799–801 (2012).
A journal article with 2 authors
J. M. Pandolfi and C. E. Lovelock, “Ecology. Novelty trumps loss in global biodiversity,” Science 344(6181), 266–267 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
L. C. James, P. Roversi, and D. S. Tawfik, “Antibody multispecificity mediated by conformational diversity,” Science 299(5611), 1362–1367 (2003).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R. A. Dick et al., “Author Correction: Inositol phosphates are assembly co-factors for HIV-1,” Nature 563(7731), E22 (2018).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. L. Peterson, Trading on Sentiment, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2016).
An edited book
L. Zaibert, Ed., The Theory and Practice of Ontology, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
A. N. Sheth, C. D. Lahiri, and I. Ofotokun, “Sex Differences in Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics,” in Sex and Gender Differences in Infection and Treatments for Infectious Diseases, S. L. Klein and C. W. Roberts, Eds., pp. 75–102, Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanophotonics.

Blog post
T. Hale, “Video Games Could Be A Tool To Help People Out Of Depression,” IFLScience, 27 March 2017, <> (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Teenage Drug Use: Uncertain Linkages With Either Pregnancy or School Dropout,” PEMD-91-3, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1991).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Rajagopal, “Assessing water management impacts of climate change for a semi-arid watershed in the southwestern US,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona (2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. K. (nyt), “World Briefing | Europe: Ukraine: Court Rejects Charges Against President,” in New York Times, p. A6 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanophotonics
AbbreviationJ. Nanophotonics
ISSN (online)1934-2608
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

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