How to format your references using the Journal of Nanobiotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanobiotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Aleksander I. The self “out there.” Nature. 2001;413:23.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kottemann MC, Smogorzewska A. Fanconi anaemia and the repair of Watson and Crick DNA crosslinks. Nature. 2013;493:356–63.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McCloskey J, Nalbant SS, Steacy S. Indonesian earthquake: earthquake risk from co-seismic stress. Nature. 2005;434:291.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pan Y, Xie YH, Deng ZM, Tang Y, Pan DD. High water level impedes the adaptation of Polygonum hydropiper to deep burial: responses of biomass allocation and root morphology. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5612.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Radoine H. Architecture in Context. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Grobman S. The Second Economy: The Race for Trust, Treasure and Time in the Cybersecurity War. Cerra A, editor. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. O’Connor L. On Blending Attacks for Mixes with Memory. In: Barni M, Herrera-Joancomartí J, Katzenbeisser S, Pérez-González F, editors. Information Hiding: 7th International Workshop, IH 2005, Barcelona, Spain, June 6-8, 2005 Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 39–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanobiotechnology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. SpaceX Pay Homage To The Falcon 9 Rocket In Beautiful Slow-Motion Video [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Department of Education and Other Federal Agencies Need to Better Implement Controls. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015 Nov. Report No.: GAO-16-228T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hawkins SH. Lung CT Radiomics: An Overview of Using Images as Data [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Markoff J. Exploring the Sea, No Sailors Needed. New York Times. 2016 Sep 5;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanobiotechnology
AbbreviationJ. Nanobiotechnology
ISSN (online)1477-3155
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Biomedical Engineering
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles