How to format your references using the Journal of Nanobiotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanobiotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Fairley P. Energy storage: Power revolution. Nature. 2015;526:S102-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Coffin JM, Stoye JP. Virology. A new virus for old diseases? Science. 2009;326:530–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. De Pontieu B, Erdélyi R, James SP. Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows. Nature. 2004;430:536–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gurnett DA, Zarka P, Manning R, Kurth WS, Hospodarsky GB, Averkamp TF, et al. Non-detection at Venus of high-frequency radio signals characteristic of terrestrial lightning. Nature. 2001;409:313–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lindahl D. Trump University Commercial Real Estate 101. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Gong Y. Machine Learning for Multimedia Content Analysis. Xu W, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Iida K. Nanocomposite RE-Ba-Cu-O Bulk Superconductors. In: Mele P, Endo T, Arisawa S, Li C, Tsuchiya T, editors. Oxide Thin Films, Multilayers, and Nanocomposites. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 85–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanobiotechnology.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The Insane Moment A Hippo Tried To Attack A Boat Tour. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Feb. Report No.: GAO-07-442T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chellamuthu VK. Structured Population Models: Numerical Methods and Application to Frogs Infected with Chytridiomycosis [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gustines GG. A World Where Only Black People Have Superpowers. New York Times. 2017 Jul 31;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanobiotechnology
AbbreviationJ. Nanobiotechnology
ISSN (online)1477-3155
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Biomedical Engineering
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles