How to format your references using the Journal of Nanobiotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanobiotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Russo E. Success in an uneven market. Nature. 2003;424:597.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Maniatis T, Reed R. An extensive network of coupling among gene expression machines. Nature. 2002;416:499–506.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gilbert IR, Jarvis PG, Smith H. Proximity signal and shade avoidance differences between early and late successional trees. Nature. 2001;411:792–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Eldrett JS, Greenwood DR, Harding IC, Huber M. Increased seasonality through the Eocene to Oligocene transition in northern high latitudes. Nature. 2009;459:969–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sawant RJ. Infrastructure Investing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Mandal DK, Syan CS, editors. CAD/CAM, Robotics and Factories of the Future: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on CARs & FoF 2016. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sierksma G, Ghosh D. Minimum Spanning Trees. In: Ghosh D, editor. Networks in Action: Text and Computer Exercises in Network Optimization. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 37–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanobiotechnology.

Blog post
1. Evans K. 26 Time-Management Tricks I Wish I’d Known At 20 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Computer Systems: VA’s Target Project Never Achieved Redesign of Its Processing Software. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-86-30BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ellerbrook SL. Exploring the efficiency and effectiveness of teacher selection tools: The effects on the total group with a focus on the gender sub-groups [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Bittman M. Feast in a Day. New York Times. 2012 Dec 14;MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanobiotechnology
AbbreviationJ. Nanobiotechnology
ISSN (online)1477-3155
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Biomedical Engineering
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

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