How to format your references using the Journal of Nanobiotechnology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Nanobiotechnology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Palmer T. Atmospheric science. Record-breaking winters and global climate change. Science. 2014;344:803–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mourier T, Jeffares DC. Eukaryotic intron loss. Science. 2003;300:1393.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Walsh JP, Cohen WM, Arora A. Science and the law. Working through the patent problem. Science. 2003;299:1021.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lyapina S, Cope G, Shevchenko A, Serino G, Tsuge T, Zhou C, et al. Promotion of NEDD-CUL1 conjugate cleavage by COP9 signalosome. Science. 2001;292:1382–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Darling-Hammond L, Meyerson D, LaPointe M, Terry Orr M, Barber M, Cohen C, et al. Preparing Principals for a Changing World. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bas; 2009.
An edited book
1. Hanus M, editor. Logic-Based Program Synthesis and Transformation: 18th International Symposium, LOPSTR 2008, Valencia, Spain, July 17-18, 2008, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Juth N, Munthe C. Screening – How? In: Munthe C, editor. The Ethics of Screening in Health Care and Medicine: Serving Society or Serving the Patient? Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 81–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Nanobiotechnology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Flowers Are Now Being Grown On The ISS [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: With Costs Increasing and Data Continuity at Risk, Improvements Needed in Tri-agency Decision Making. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009 Jun. Report No.: GAO-09-564.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Forlizzi ML. Congruency of supervisor and counselor perceptions of actual and preferred counselor work behaviors [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gorman J. Ancient Guano Reveals a Tale of Penguins Devastated by Volcanoes. New York Times. 2017 Apr 11;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Nanobiotechnology
AbbreviationJ. Nanobiotechnology
ISSN (online)1477-3155
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Biomedical Engineering
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Pharmaceutical Science

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