How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simmons RM. Prophets without honour? Nature. 2000 Oct 19;407(6806):839.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jinnah S, Jungcurt S. Global biological resources. Could access requirements stifle your research? Science. 2009 Jan 23;323(5913):464–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tzfira T, Vaidya M, Citovsky V. Involvement of targeted proteolysis in plant genetic transformation by Agrobacterium. Nature. 2004 Sep 2;431(7004):87–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kaltenboeck G, Harris T, Sun K, Tran T, Chang G, Schramm JP, et al. Accessing thermoplastic processing windows in metallic glasses using rapid capacitive discharge. Sci Rep. 2014 Oct 1;4:6441.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Golding P. Next Generation Wireless Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Walther W, editor. Current Strategies in Cancer Gene Therapy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. V, 121 p. 13 illus., 7 illus. in color. (Recent Results in Cancer Research; vol. 209).
A chapter in an edited book
Zaumseil M, von Vacano M, Schwarz S. Contextualizing the Research: Introduction to the Case Study in Java, Indonesia. In: Zaumseil M, Schwarz S, von Vacano M, Sullivan GB, Prawitasari-Hadiyono JE, editors. Cultural Psychology of Coping with Disasters: The Case of an Earthquake in Java, Indonesia. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 105–27.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.

Blog post
Davis J. The Bacteria In Our Gut May Influence Our Response To Certain Cancer Treatments [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Nov. Report No.: GAO-03-269R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Demenkoff JH. Evolution and emergence of the masculinities: Epiphanies and epiphenomena of the male athlete and dancer [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Her Peers Made School Look Easy. With Hard Work, She’s Catching Up. New York Times. 2017 Oct 29;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect.
ISSN (print)1684-1182
ISSN (online)1995-9133
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles