How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Seeking out the élite. Nature. 2003 May 1;423(6935):97.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gutierrez MP, Lee LP. Engineering. Multiscale design and integration of sustainable building functions. Science. 2013 Jul 19;341(6143):247–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duan LM, Cirac JI, Zoller P. Geometric manipulation of trapped ions for quantum computation. Science. 2001 Jun 1;292(5522):1695–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Körtzinger A, Schimanski J, Send U, Wallace D. The ocean takes a deep breath. Science. 2004 Nov 19;306(5700):1337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowe HE. Electromagnetic Propagation in Multi-Mode Random Media. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2001.
An edited book
Tse PW, Mathew J, Wong K, Lam R, Ko CN, editors. Engineering Asset Management - Systems, Professional Practices and Certification: Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM 2013) & the 3rd International Conference on Utility Management & Safety (ICUMAS). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XXVIII, 1811 p. 755 illus., 543 illus. in color. (Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Brandhorst H, Johnson PRV, Brandhorst D. Pancreatic Islets: Methods for Isolation and Purification of Juvenile and Adult Pig Islets. In: Ramírez-Domínguez M, editor. Pancreatic Islet Isolation: From the Mouse to the Clinic. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 35–55. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.

Blog post
Andrew E. Clouds Of Water Vapour Detected Just 7 Light-Years Away. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA Procurement: The 1973 Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Contractor Selection. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 Sep. Report No.: NSIAD-87-215.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davidson WB. High school athletics and the “whole adolescent”: A case study of three urban high schools [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. A Rock Telethon in Russia, Echoing the Mood of 9/11. New York Times. 2004 Sep 9;A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect.
ISSN (print)1684-1182
ISSN (online)1995-9133
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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