How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burns CJ. Chemistry. Bridging a gap in actinide chemistry. Science. 2005 Sep 16;309(5742):1823–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kodama R, Fast-Ignitor Consortium. Fast heating scalable to laser fusion ignition. Nature. 2002 Aug 29;418(6901):933–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Y, Duan Z, Fan D. An ion diffusion method for visualising a solid-like water nanofilm. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 16;3:3505.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Pan M, Huang P, Li S, Chen J, Wei S, Zhang Y. Double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in preoperative Borrmann classification of advanced gastric carcinoma: comparison with histopathology. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 26;3:3338.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Homès B. Fundamentals of Software Testing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2012.
An edited book
Buscema M, Tastle WJ, editors. Intelligent Data Mining in Law Enforcement Analytics: New Neural Networks Applied to Real Problems. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. XVIII, 518 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Dudler A, Weiß K. Interlocking gear wheels – from training to practice in various professional fields. In: Krall H, Fürst J, Fontaine P, editors. Supervision in Psychodrama: Experiential Learning in Psychotherapy and Training. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2012. p. 57–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection.

Blog post
Andrews R. Everest May Not Be The Tallest Mountain In The World After All [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Protest of Air Force Contract Award. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 May. Report No.: B-175469.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norton DA. O’Connor’s agent casual theory of free will: An evaluation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Student, the Sleuth and the Mysterious Pillow. New York Times. 2000 Sep 17;141.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Immunol. Infect.
ISSN (print)1684-1182
ISSN (online)1995-9133
ScopeGeneral Immunology and Microbiology
General Medicine
Immunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles