How to format your references using the Global and Planetary Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global and Planetary Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2011. Concerns over nuclear energy are legitimate. Nature 471, 549.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meguro, A., Sato, Y., 2014. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice. Sci. Rep. 4, 4555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Martin, A., Baker, T.A., Sauer, R.T., 2005. Rebuilt AAA + motors reveal operating principles for ATP-fuelled machines. Nature 437, 1115–1120.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sebastian, S.E., Harrison, N., Palm, E., Murphy, T.P., Mielke, C.H., Liang, R., Bonn, D.A., Hardy, W.N., Lonzarich, G.G., 2008. A multi-component Fermi surface in the vortex state of an underdoped high-Tc superconductor. Nature 454, 200–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rebonato, R., 2004. Volatility and Correlation. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Krishna, R., Yu, L. (Eds.), 2008. Biopharmaceutics Applications in Drug Development. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Zaccaro, S.J., Weis, E.J., Chen, T.R., Matthews, M.D., 2014. Situational Load and Personal Attributes: Implications for Cognitive Readiness, Adaptive Readiness, and Training, in: O’Neil, H.F., Perez, R.S., Baker, E.L. (Eds.), Teaching and Measuring Cognitive Readiness. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 93–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global and Planetary Change.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. The Story Of The Dinosaurs Is About To Get A Major Rewrite [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2014. Aviation Manufacturing: Status of FAA’s Efforts to Improve Certification and Regulatory Consistency (No. GAO-14-829T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mueller, K., 2017. Biases in the Selection Process Against Applicants with Tattoos (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Norris, M., 2010. FROM BROTHER TO SISTER. New York Times MM66.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain, 2011; Meguro and Sato, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meguro and Sato, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sebastian et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal and Planetary Change
AbbreviationGlob. Planet. Change
ISSN (print)0921-8181
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles