How to format your references using the Global and Planetary Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global and Planetary Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quackenbush, J., 2003. Genomics. Microarrays--guilt by association. Science 302, 240–241.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yau, S.T., Vekilov, P.G., 2000. Quasi-planar nucleus structure in apoferritin crystallization. Nature 406, 494–497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Collins, P.G., Arnold, M.S., Avouris, P., 2001. Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown. Science 292, 706–709.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Palaferri, D., Todorov, Y., Bigioli, A., Mottaghizadeh, A., Gacemi, D., Calabrese, A., Vasanelli, A., Li, L., Davies, A.G., Linfield, E.H., Kapsalidis, F., Beck, M., Faist, J., Sirtori, C., 2018. Room-temperature nine-µm-wavelength photodetectors and GHz-frequency heterodyne receivers. Nature 556, 85–88.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chong, Y.Y., 2004. Investment Risk Management. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Kapural, L. (Ed.), 2015. Chronic Abdominal Pain: An Evidence-Based, Comprehensive Guide to Clinical Management. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
König, S., Schauer, S., Rass, S., 2016. A Stochastic Framework for Prediction of Malware Spreading in Heterogeneous Networks, in: Brumley, B.B., Röning, J. (Eds.), Secure IT Systems: 21st Nordic Conference, NordSec 2016, Oulu, Finland, November 2-4, 2016. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global and Planetary Change.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Dream Disorders Could Be Early Indicator Of Future Brain Disease [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Federal Communications Commission: Facilitate the Development and Use of the Universal Licensing System in the Wireless Telecommunications Services (No. OGC-99-25). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chapman, T.W., 2017. Evaluating the δ13C Value of n-Alkanes as a Recorder of Atmospheric Chemistry (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ellis, B.E., 2017. Still Here. New York Times M2118.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quackenbush, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Quackenbush, 2003; Yau and Vekilov, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yau and Vekilov, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Palaferri et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal and Planetary Change
AbbreviationGlob. Planet. Change
ISSN (print)0921-8181
Global and Planetary Change

Other styles