How to format your references using the Global and Planetary Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global and Planetary Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeilinger, A., 2000. The quantum centennial. Nature 408, 639–641.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, A., Kanamarlapudi, V., 2014. The regions within the N-terminus critical for human glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (hGLP-1R) cell surface expression. Sci. Rep. 4, 7410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykotrafitis, G., Rosakis, A.J., Ravichandran, G., 2006. Self-healing pulse-like shear ruptures in the laboratory. Science 313, 1765–1768.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lauterbach, M.A., Guillon, M., Soltani, A., Emiliani, V., 2013. STED microscope with spiral phase contrast. Sci. Rep. 3, 2050.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kushner, R., Lawrence, V., Kumar, S., 2013. Practical Manual of Clinical Obesity. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Oberlack, M., Khujadze, G., Günther, S., Weller, T., Frewer, M., Peinke, J., Barth, S. (Eds.), 2007. Progress in Turbulence II: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2005, Springer Proceedings in Physics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Tsang, R., Taha, M.-K., 2016. Diagnosis of meningococcal disease, in: Feavers, I., Pollard, A.J., Sadarangani, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Meningococcal Disease Management. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global and Planetary Change.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Global Ecosystems At Risk Of Failing As Biodiversity Falls Below Safety Limit, Scientists Warn [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Student Enrollment and Attendance Reports in the Boston Public School System Are Substantially Accurate (No. HRD-76-146). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leonard, J.M., 2001. The Effect of Manufacturing Establishments on Local Area per Capita Personal Income in the U.S. 1967-1990 (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2007. For the Chief Justice, a Dissent and a Line in the Sand. New York Times WK12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zeilinger, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson and Kanamarlapudi, 2014; Zeilinger, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson and Kanamarlapudi, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Lauterbach et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal and Planetary Change
AbbreviationGlob. Planet. Change
ISSN (print)0921-8181
Global and Planetary Change

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