How to format your references using the Global and Planetary Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global and Planetary Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shneiderman, B., 2008. Computer science. Science 2.0. Science 319, 1349–1350.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lubenov, E.V., Siapas, A.G., 2009. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves. Nature 459, 534–539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nazin, G.V., Qiu, X.H., Ho, W., 2003. Visualization and spectroscopy of a metal-molecule-metal bridge. Science 302, 77–81.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frescas, D., Guardavaccaro, D., Bassermann, F., Koyama-Nasu, R., Pagano, M., 2007. JHDM1B/FBXL10 is a nucleolar protein that represses transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Nature 450, 309–313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Du, D.-Z., Ko, K.-I., 2014. Theory of Computational Complexity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ho, Y.-S., Kim, H.-J. (Eds.), 2005. Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2005: 6th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Jeju Island, Korea, November 13-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part II, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Takahashi, A., 2016. Diagnosis of Lateral Extensions, in: Oyama, T. (Ed.), Endoscopic Diagnosis of Superficial Gastric Cancer for ESD. Springer Japan, Tokyo, pp. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global and Planetary Change.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. Analyzing The Way Children Sleep Could Help Us To Understand Autism [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Athletic Department Profiles (No. HRD-93-24R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mannar, N.K., 2017. Hri-Tech Consultants, LLC (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2017. Hulu Hires AMC Veteran as First Chief Content Officer. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shneiderman, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Lubenov and Siapas, 2009; Shneiderman, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lubenov and Siapas, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Frescas et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal and Planetary Change
AbbreviationGlob. Planet. Change
ISSN (print)0921-8181
Global and Planetary Change

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