How to format your references using the Global and Planetary Change citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Global and Planetary Change. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fischhoff, B., 2015. The realities of risk-cost-benefit analysis. Science 350, aaa6516.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyd, R.W., Gauthier, D.J., 2009. Controlling the velocity of light pulses. Science 326, 1074–1077.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qian, L., Winfree, E., Bruck, J., 2011. Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades. Nature 475, 368–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Okamoto, S., Inaba, K., Iida, T., Ishihara, H., Ichikawa, S., Ashida, M., 2014. Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials. Sci. Rep. 4, 5186.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Declerck, P., 2012. Discrete Event Systems in Dioid Algebra and Conventional Algebra. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Benato, R., 2010. EHV AC Undergrounding Electrical Power: Performance and Planning, Power Systems. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Nie, J.F., Zhu, Y.M., Wilson, N.C., 2016. Solute Segregation and Aggregation in Mg Alloys, in: Manuel, M.V., Singh, A., Alderman, M., Neelameggham, N.R. (Eds.), Magnesium Technology 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 9–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Global and Planetary Change.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Hundreds of Erupting Methane Plumes Discovered Along U.S. East Coast [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Selected Contracting and Consulting Activities of the Office of Education (No. B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Houger, V.P., 2011. Generational differences and the impact to employee engagement: A program design (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Investors Give $90 Million To a Flying Car Start-Up. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fischhoff, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Boyd and Gauthier, 2009; Fischhoff, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boyd and Gauthier, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Okamoto et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGlobal and Planetary Change
AbbreviationGlob. Planet. Change
ISSN (print)0921-8181
Global and Planetary Change

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