How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morse, S.S., 2008. Retrospective: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Science 319, 1351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dawson, R.I., Chiang, E., 2014. A class of warm Jupiters with mutually inclined, apsidally misaligned close friends. Science 346, 212–216.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, U., Schwarz, A., Wiesendanger, R., 2007. Magnetic exchange force microscopy with atomic resolution. Nature 446, 522–525.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dekel, A., Stoehr, F., Mamon, G.A., Cox, T.J., Novak, G.S., Primack, J.R., 2005. Lost and found dark matter in elliptical galaxies. Nature 437, 707–710.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandru, V., Hooker, J., 1999. Optimization Methods for Logical Inference. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chen, X., 2014. Lanthanide-Doped Luminescent Nanomaterials: From Fundamentals to Bioapplications, Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Conforti, M., Cornuéjols, G., Zambelli, G., 2014. Split and Gomory Inequalities, in: Cornuéjols, G., Zambelli, G. (Eds.), Integer Programming, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 195–234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiological Methods.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. At Least Ten Other Men Could Rival Genghis Khan’s Genetic Legacy [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Financial Management: Federal Aviation Administration Lacked Accountability for Major Assets (No. AIMD-98-62). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hunt, S.A., 2012. A study of health care payment organizations’ culture and adaptability to revolutionary change (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, R.W., 1999. The Police Department’s 9-Millimeter Revolution. New York Times A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morse, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Dawson and Chiang, 2014; Morse, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dawson and Chiang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Dekel et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Methods
ISSN (print)0167-7012
ScopeMolecular Biology
Microbiology (medical)

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