How to format your references using the Journal of Microbiological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Microbiological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schrope, M., 2000. Climatology. Trouble in the greenhouse. Nature 407, 10–12.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pena, L.D., Goldstein, S.L., 2014. Thermohaline circulation crisis and impacts during the mid-Pleistocene transition. Science 345, 318–322.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hata, S., Nakao, H., Mikhailov, A.S., 2014. Dispersal-induced destabilization of metapopulations and oscillatory Turing patterns in ecological networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 3585.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shi, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhao, F., Ruan, H., Huang, H., Luo, L., Li, L., 2014. Acetylcholine serves as a derepressor in Loperamide-induced Opioid-Induced Bowel Dysfunction (OIBD) in zebrafish. Sci. Rep. 4, 5602.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thomas, C.G., 2014. Greece. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford.
An edited book
Özkaya, N., 2012. Fundamentals of Biomechanics: Equilibrium, Motion, and Deformation, 3rd ed. 2012. ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Frances, C., 2015. The Dangerous Role of Economists in Shaping American Higher Education Policy, in: Pritchard, R.M.O., Klumpp, M., Teichler, U. (Eds.), Diversity and Excellence in Higher Education: Can the Challenges Be Reconciled? SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 53–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Microbiological Methods.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. This Cute Falcon Chick Was Rescued At CERN [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation and the Environment: NextGen and Research and Development Are Keys to Reducing Emissions and Their Impact on Health and Climate (No. GAO-08-706T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vaughn, E.L., 2013. Find me on Facebook: A new typology for categorizing online personalities (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kirk, S., 1942. Aid for Greece Sought. New York Times BOOKS18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schrope, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pena and Goldstein, 2014; Schrope, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pena and Goldstein, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Microbiological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Microbiol. Methods
ISSN (print)0167-7012
ScopeMolecular Biology
Microbiology (medical)

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