How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Ultrasonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Ultrasonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brown JKM. Evolution. Little else but parasites. Science. 2003;299:1680–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Ikeda T, Ube T. Materials science: A superelastic organic crystal. Nature. 2014;511:300–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Banerjee P, Pollitz FF, Bürgmann R. The size and duration of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from far-field static offsets. Science. 2005;308:1769–72.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Giacco F, Ciamarra MP, Saggese L, de Arcangelis L, Lippiello E. Non-monotonic dependence of the friction coefficient on heterogeneous stiffness. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6772.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Rieth M, Krämer N. Hygiene in der Arzneimittelproduktion. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
1. Roussak OV. Applied Chemistry: A Textbook for Engineers and Technologists. 2nd ed. 2013. Gesser HD, editor. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mileff P, Dudra J. Advanced 2D Rasterization on Modern CPUs. In: Bognár G, Tóth T, editors. Applied Information Science, Engineering and Technology: Selected Topics from the Field of Production Information Engineering and IT for Manufacturing: Theory and Practice. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 63–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Ultrasonics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Great White Sharks Exploit The Angle Of The Sun While Hunting [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intelligence Programs: New RC-135 Aircraft Engines Can Reduce Cost and Improve Performance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Aug. Report No.: NSIAD-92-305.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Doss A. Trapped within the white gaze: A DuBoisian approach to understanding the existential burden of being a black man in America [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. MacFARQUHAR N, Nechepurenko I. In Over 100 Cities, Protesters Heed Anti-Kremlin Cry. New York Times. 2017 Jun 12;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Ultrasonics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Ultrason. (2001)
ISSN (print)1346-4523
ISSN (online)1613-2254
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles