How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Ultrasonics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Ultrasonics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Triendl R. A clash of two cultures. Nature. 2002;419:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Chen S-W, Liu R-B. Faraday rotation echo spectroscopy and detection of quantum fluctuations. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4695.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Butler SJ, Vickery JA, Norris K. Farmland biodiversity and the footprint of agriculture. Science. 2007;315:381–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ahlberg P, Trinajstic K, Johanson Z, Long J. Pelvic claspers confirm chondrichthyan-like internal fertilization in arthrodires. Nature. 2009;460:888–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Keegan KD. Biotechnology Valuation. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Choraś RS, editor. Image Processing and Communications Challenges 4. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. André FJ, Cardenete MA, Romero C. Multicriteria Economic Policies: General Ideas and Some Previous Experiences. In: Cardenete MA, Romero C, editors. Designing Public Policies: An Approach Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis and Computable General Equilibrium Modeling. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 55–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Ultrasonics.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. If You Go Down To The Woods Today You’re In For A Big Surprise – Europe’s Bears Are Back [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Defaulted Student Loans: Analysis of Defaulted Borrowers at Schools Accredited by Seven Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Sep. Report No.: HRD-90-178FS.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Razzaghi M. Quantum Tunneling in Hydride Transfer Reactions in Solution [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. Bipartisan Bill Poses Federal Control Over Puerto Rico’s Fiscal Affairs. New York Times. 2016 May 20;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Ultrasonics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Ultrason. (2001)
ISSN (print)1346-4523
ISSN (online)1613-2254
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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