How to format your references using the Energy Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, M.: Introduction: Curiosity aroused. Nature. 467, S2-3 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Giazotto, F., Martínez-Pérez, M.J.: The Josephson heat interferometer. Nature. 492, 401–405 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Tewksbury, J.J., Huey, R.B., Deutsch, C.A.: Ecology. Putting the heat on tropical animals. Science. 320, 1296–1297 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bowen, G.J., Beerling, D.J., Koch, P.L., Zachos, J.C., Quattlebaum, T.: A humid climate state during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature. 432, 495–499 (2004)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sugirtharajah, R.S.: Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK (2011)
An edited book
Vincenti, G., Bucciero, A., Vaz de Carvalho, C. eds: E-Learning, E-Education, and Online Training: Second International Conference, eLEOT 2015, Novedrate, Italy, September 16-18, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Anselmo, M., Madonia, M.: Comparing Necessary Conditions for Recognizability of Two-Dimensional Languages. In: Winkler, F. (ed.) Algebraic Informatics: 4th International Conference, CAI 2011, Linz, Austria, June 21-24, 2011. Proceedings. pp. 84–96. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Systems.

Blog post
Carpineti, A.: Incredible Ice Ring Spotted In Young Planetary System,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: General Aviation Security: Increased Federal Oversight Is Needed, but Continued Partnership with the Private Sector Is Critical to Long-Term Success. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Calderwood, A.: Improving the singer’s understanding of bebop language: Transcription application, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rosenberg, E., Medina, J., Eligon, J.: Protesters Take Anti-Trump Message to His Doorstep, and Plan Next Move, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Systems
AbbreviationEnergy Syst.
ISSN (print)1868-3967
ISSN (online)1868-3975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy
Modelling and Simulation

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