How to format your references using the Energy Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris, N.: Immunology: Chronic effects of acute infections. Nature. 526, 509–510 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Keinan, A., Clark, A.G.: Recent explosive human population growth has resulted in an excess of rare genetic variants. Science. 336, 740–743 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
Šubelj, L., Fiala, D., Bajec, M.: Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases. Sci. Rep. 4, 6496 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fasching, C., Behounek, B., Singer, G.A., Battin, T.J.: Microbial degradation of terrigenous dissolved organic matter and potential consequences for carbon cycling in brown-water streams. Sci. Rep. 4, 4981 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tms: Engineering Solutions for Sustainability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2011)
An edited book
Losic, D., Santos, A. eds: Nanoporous Alumina: Fabrication, Structure, Properties and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Dym, H., de Oliveira, M.C., Putinar, M.: List of Contributors. In: Dym, H., Oliveira, M.C. de, and Putinar, M. (eds.) Mathematical Methods in Systems, Optimization, and Control: Festschrift in Honor of J. William Helton. pp. 29–30. Springer, Basel (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Systems.

Blog post
Fang, J.: Gibbon Genome Reveals Why They’re the Swing Kings


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1990)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amezcua, D.: Increasing academic success for foster youth: Educational workshops and resource guides: A grant proposal, (2016)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovett, I., Nagourney, A.: Deadly Rampage in College Town After Video Rant, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Systems
AbbreviationEnergy Syst.
ISSN (print)1868-3967
ISSN (online)1868-3975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles