How to format your references using the Energy Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J.: Physics. Fast electrons tie quantum knots. Science. 323, 888–890 (2009)
A journal article with 2 authors
Singh, B.P., Cowie, A.L.: Long-term influence of biochar on native organic carbon mineralisation in a low-carbon clayey soil. Sci. Rep. 4, 3687 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gonsamo, A., Chen, J.M., Wu, C.: Citizen Science: linking the recent rapid advances of plant flowering in Canada with climate variability. Sci. Rep. 3, 2239 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Olmeta-Schult, F., Segal, L.M., Tyner, S., Moon, T.A., Chow, R.D.-W., Chakrabarty, P., Pacesa, M., Podgornaia, A.I., Chen, J., Singh, B., Cao, B., Sidhu, R.R.S., Tan, B.W.Q., Sood, P., Parker, S., Scult, M.A., Van Haute, D., Konstantinides, N., Schwendimann, B.A., Srivastava, S., Fiorenza, R., Dutton-Regester, K., Hale, R., Polat, E.O., Lau, E., Mayer, A.L., White, E.R.: NextGen VOICES: Research resolutions. Science. 359, 26–28 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff, N.P.: Dust Explosion and Fire Prevention Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2014)
An edited book
Hanachi, C., Bénaben, F., Charoy, F. eds: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries: First International Conference, ISCRAM-med 2014, Toulouse, France, October 15-17, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Barth, D., Bournez, O., Boussaton, O., Cohen, J.: Distributed Learning of Wardrop Equilibria. In: Calude, C.S., Costa, J.F., Freund, R., Oswald, M., and Rozenberg, G. (eds.) Unconventional Computing: 7th International Conference, UC 2008 Vienna, Austria, August 25-28, 2008. Proceedings. pp. 19–32. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2008)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Systems.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Indonesian Mimic Octopus Is The Ultimate Master of Disguise


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Opportunities to Reduce Potential Duplication in Federal Teacher Quality Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2011)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, B.S.: Understanding CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Activation by CXC Chemokine Ligand 12, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sang-Hun, C., Fackler, M., Cowan, A.L., Sayare, S.: Greed Before the Fall, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Systems
AbbreviationEnergy Syst.
ISSN (print)1868-3967
ISSN (online)1868-3975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles