How to format your references using the Energy Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Turner, D.L.: Space science: Near-Earth space shows its stripes. Nature. 507, 308–309 (2014)
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Gunn, P.P., Joiner, S.D.: Certificates should be strengthened. Science. 323, 1289–90; author reply 1298-90 (2009)
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Tynan, C.T., DeMaster, D.P., Peterson, W.T.: Endangered right whales on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Science. 294, 1894 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Hampton, J., Sibert, J.R., Kleiber, P., Maunder, M.N., Harley, S.J.: Fisheries: decline of Pacific tuna populations exaggerated? Nature. 434, E1-2; discussion E2 (2005)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Center for Chemical Process Safety: Guidelines for Process Safety in Outsourced Manufacturing Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2000)
An edited book
1.
Preedy, V.R. ed: Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease. Springer, New York, NY (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Gonzaga de Oliveira, S.L., de Abreu, A.A.A.M., Robaina, D., Kischinhevsky, M.: A New Heuristic for Bandwidth and Profile Reductions of Matrices Using a Self-organizing Map. In: Gervasi, O., Murgante, B., Misra, S., Rocha, A.M.A.C., Torre, C.M., Taniar, D., Apduhan, B.O., Stankova, E., and Wang, S. (eds.) Computational Science and Its Applications – ICCSA 2016: 16th International Conference, Beijing, China, July 4-7, 2016, Proceedings, Part I. pp. 54–70. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Systems.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Space Launches: FAA’s Risk Assessment Process Is Not Yet Updated. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2014)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Gonzalez, R.: A mentoring program for Latino foster youth: A grant proposal, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Feeney, K.: A Focus on Cheese, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Systems
AbbreviationEnergy Syst.
ISSN (print)1868-3967
ISSN (online)1868-3975
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
General Energy
Modelling and Simulation

Other styles