How to format your references using the Journal of Medical Ethics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Medical Ethics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Dessler AE. A determination of the cloud feedback from climate variations over the past decade. Science 2010;330:1523–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Smith MM, Johanson Z. Separate evolutionary origins of teeth from evidence in fossil jawed vertebrates. Science 2003;299:1235–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Blum R, Kafitz KW, Konnerth A. Neurotrophin-evoked depolarization requires the sodium channel Na(V)1.9. Nature 2002;419:687–93.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1
Vogeli KM, Jin S-W, Martin GR, et al. A common progenitor for haematopoietic and endothelial lineages in the zebrafish gastrula. Nature 2006;443:337–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Cook M. Personnel Selection. Oxford, UK: : Wiley-Blackwell 2008.
An edited book
1
Hasler P, Mooney V, Reis R, editors. VLSI-SoC: Advanced Topics on Systems on a Chip: A Selection of Extended Versions of the Best Papers of the Fourteenth International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration of System on Chip (VLSI-SoC2007), October 15-17, 2007, Atlanta, USA. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Fukuoka Y, Verico K. Indonesia–China Economic Relations in the Twenty-First Century: Opportunities and Challenges. In: Kim Y-C, ed. Chinese Global Production Networks in ASEAN. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016. 53–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Medical Ethics.

Blog post
1
Andrew E. LightSail has Disintegrated in our Atmosphere. IFLScience. 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. [Comments on NTSB Employee’s Claim for TQSE]. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Crossman DC. The impact of safety culture on worker motivation and the economic bottom line. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Walsh MW. Tighter Rules Are Issued On Municipal Bond Deals. New York Times. 2012;:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Medical Ethics
AbbreviationJ. Med. Ethics
ISSN (print)0306-6800
ISSN (online)1473-4257
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Health Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

Other styles