How to format your references using the Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.R. Clarke, Cell biology A gradient signal orchestrates the mitotic spindle, Science 309 (5739) (2005) 1334–1335.
A journal article with 2 authors
F. Chen and M.A. Krasnow, Progenitor outgrowth from the niche in Drosophila trachea is guided by FGF from decaying branches, Science 343 (6167) (2014) 186–189.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.S. Ruthazer, C.J. Akerman, and H.T. Cline, Control of axon branch dynamics by correlated activity in vivo, Science 301 (5629) (2003) 66–70.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.P. Hanage et al., Hyper-recombination, diversity, and antibiotic resistance in pneumococcus, Science 324 (5933) (2009) 1454–1457.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Negre, Information and Recommender Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, (2015).
An edited book
T. Diagana, Non-Archimedean Operator Theory, Springer International Publishing, Cham, (2016).
A chapter in an edited book
W.R. Blischke, M. Rezaul Karim, and D.N. Prabhakar Murthy, Supplementary Warranty Data, in M.R. Karim, D.N.P. Murthy (Eds.), Warranty Data Collection and Analysis, Springer, London, (2011): pp. 79–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology.

Blog post
J. Davis, Mars Scientists Emerge From Eight-Month Isolation Experiment, IFLScience (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Geostationary Weather Satellites: Progress Made, but Weaknesses in Scheduling, Contingency Planning, and Communicating with Users Need to Be Addressed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, (2013).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.S. Schreiber, Discursive constructions of decline: Narratives of illness and financial stress among residents in assisted living, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Valerian, For a Brown, the Comeback Trail Leads Home, New York Times (2013) B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,1].
This sentence cites four references [1,1,1,1].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Mechanical Science and Technology
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1738-494X
ISSN (online)1976-3824
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

Other styles