How to format your references using the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaumseil, J. (2014). “Applied physics. Electronic control of circularly polarized light emission.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6185), 702–703.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dasgupta, P. S., and Ehrlich, P. R. (2013). “Pervasive externalities at the population, consumption, and environment nexus.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6130), 324–328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, D. Y. W., Hoster, H. E., and Batabyal, S. K. (2014). “Bulk antimony sulfide with excellent cycle stability as next-generation anode for lithium-ion batteries.” Scientific reports, 4, 4562.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yaghi, O. M., O’Keeffe, M., Ockwig, N. W., Chae, H. K., Eddaoudi, M., and Kim, J. (2003). “Reticular synthesis and the design of new materials.” Nature, 423(6941), 705–714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe, E. H. (2014). Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Martens, U. M. (Ed.). (2010). Small Molecules in Oncology. Recent Results in Cancer Research, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Pieracci, F. M., and Moore, E. E. (2014). “Principles and Philosophy of Damage Control Surgery.” Trauma Surgery: Volume 1: Trauma Management, Trauma Critical Care, Orthopaedic Trauma and Neuro-Trauma, S. Di Saverio, G. Tugnoli, F. Catena, L. Ansaloni, and N. Naidoo, eds., Springer, Milano, 43–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017). “A Lake In Australia Has Turned A Fetching Shade Of Hot Pink.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <; (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Child Labor: Information on Federal Enforcement Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holmgren, J. L. (2013). “Instructor responses to rhetorical dissent: Student perceptions of justice and classroom outcomes.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gurley, G. (2016). “Where Everybody Knows Your Name and Accepts Your Politics.” New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaumseil 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Dasgupta and Ehrlich 2013; Zaumseil 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dasgupta and Ehrlich 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Yaghi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Irrig. Drain. Eng.
ISSN (print)0733-9437
ISSN (online)1943-4774
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Civil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles