How to format your references using the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fiset, S. (2010). “Comment on ‘Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants.’” Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5988), 142; author reply 142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wei, J., and Tong, L. (2015). “Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer.” Nature, 526(7575), 723–727.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, L., Timmermann, A., and Thunell, R. (2007). “Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5849), 435–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kakazu, E., Kondo, Y., Kogure, T., Ninomiya, M., Kimura, O., Ueno, Y., and Shimosegawa, T. (2013). “Plasma amino acids imbalance in cirrhotic patients disturbs the tricarboxylic acid cycle of dendritic cell.” Scientific reports, 3, 3459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod, L. E. (2016). Leading with Noble Purpose. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wierzbicki, A., Brandes, U., Schweitzer, F., and Pedreschi, D. (Eds.). (2016). Advances in Network Science: 12th International Conference and School, NetSci-X 2016, Wroclaw, Poland, January 11-13, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rosner, M., and Fabian, I. D. (2014). “Basal Cell Carcinoma.” Clinical Ophthalmic Oncology: Eyelid and Conjunctival Tumors, J. Pe’er and A. D. Singh, eds., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016). “Desert-Dwelling Elephants Have A Unique Culture But Common Genetics.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <> (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Job Corps: Better Targeted Career Training and Improved Preenrollment Information Could Enhance Female Residential Student Recruitment and Retention. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dorin, J. (2014). “Attachment style and perceived stress in college students.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L. F. (2006). “A Symbol of Carefree, Innocent Fun? Not in Oyster Bay.” New York Times, 14LI10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fiset 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Fiset 2010; Wei and Tong 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wei and Tong 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kakazu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Irrig. Drain. Eng.
ISSN (print)0733-9437
ISSN (online)1943-4774
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Civil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

Other styles