How to format your references using the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alexander, R. M. 2001. “Design by numbers.” Nature, 412 (6847): 591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pfisterer, A. B., and B. Schmid. 2002. “Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning.” Nature, 416 (6876): 84–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thakur, G., K. Prashanthi, and T. Thundat. 2013. “Directed self-assembly of proteins into discrete radial patterns.” Sci. Rep., 3: 1923.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, Z., I. Luyten, M. J. Bottomley, A. C. Messias, S. Houngninou-Molango, R. Sprangers, K. Zanier, A. Krämer, and M. Sattler. 2001. “Structural basis for recognition of the intron branch site RNA by splicing factor 1.” Science, 294 (5544): 1098–1102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mindham, C. N. 2008. Roof Construction and Loft Conversion. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Manolopoulos, Y. 2006. R-Trees: Theory and Applications. Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing, (A. Nanopoulos, A. N. Papadopoulos, and Y. Theodoridis, eds.). London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Henkelman, R. M., X. J. Chen, and J. G. Sled. 2005. “Disease phenotyping: structural and functional readouts.” Imaging in Drug Discovery and Early Clinical Trials, Progress in Drug Research, P. L. Herrling, A. Matter, and M. Rudin, eds., 151–184. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2017. “The Blood Of Dragons Could Destroy Antibiotic Resistance.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Weather Forecasting: New Processing System Faces Uncertainties and Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blalock, J. M. 2014. “The Links at St Andrews, Scotland A phenomenological hermeneutic exploration of golf’s primordial place.” Doctoral dissertation. Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. 2010. “A Friend’s Mistake, An Understudy’s Chance.” New York Times, December 12, 2010.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexander 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Alexander 2001; Pfisterer and Schmid 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pfisterer and Schmid 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Irrig. Drain. Eng.
ISSN (print)0733-9437
ISSN (online)1943-4774
ScopeAgricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
Civil and Structural Engineering
Water Science and Technology

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