How to format your references using the Journal of Intercultural Communication Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intercultural Communication Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, M. (2009). Time to turn off the lights. Nature, 457(7225), 27.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kostarelos, K., & Novoselov, K. S. (2014). Materials science. Exploring the interface of graphene and biology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6181), 261–263.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lupp, C., Skipper, M., & Weiss, U. (2012). Gut microbes and health. Nature, 489(7415), 219.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yip, C. K., Kimbrough, T. G., Felise, H. B., Vuckovic, M., Thomas, N. A., Pfuetzner, R. A., Frey, E. A., Finlay, B. B., Miller, S. I., & Strynadka, N. C. J. (2005). Structural characterization of the molecular platform for type III secretion system assembly. Nature, 435(7042), 702–707.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Becker, K., & Rautenstrauch, K. (2012). Ingenieurholzbau nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lamballais, E., Friedrich, R., Geurts, B. J., & Métais, O. (Eds.). (2006). Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation VI. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Boer, J., Hoek, A., & Elzerman, H. (2006). Social Desirability: Consumer Aspects. In H. Aiking, J. de Boer, & J. Vereijken (Eds.), Sustainable Protein Production and Consumption: Pigs or Peas? (pp. 99–127). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 6). These Simulations Let You Visualize What It Would Look Like If The The Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hit Your City. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Selected Contracts, Purchase Orders, and Grants Awarded to Indian Tribes and Organizations During Fiscal Year 1971 (B-114868). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams-Newball, T. I. (2014). Domain, Community and Practice: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Communities of Practice and Professional Identity Among Veterinarians [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 16). Ryan Tries to Flatten A Persistent Opponent. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kostarelos & Novoselov, 2014; Smith, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kostarelos & Novoselov, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lupp et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yip et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intercultural Communication Research
AbbreviationJ. Intercult. Commun. Res.
ISSN (print)1747-5759
ISSN (online)1747-5767
Cultural Studies

Other styles