How to format your references using the Journal of Intercultural Communication Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intercultural Communication Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giessibl, F. J. (2013). Chemistry. Seeing the reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6139), 1417–1418.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hess, O., & Tsakmakidis, K. L. (2013). Applied physics. Metamaterials with quantum gain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6120), 654–655.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shiono, M., Matsugaki, N., & Takeda, K. (2005). Phytochemistry: structure of the blue cornflower pigment. Nature, 436(7052), 791.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chiba, D., Sawicki, M., Nishitani, Y., Nakatani, Y., Matsukura, F., & Ohno, H. (2008). Magnetization vector manipulation by electric fields. Nature, 455(7212), 515–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rombach, G. (2010). Spannbetonbau. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Gamage, D. T. (Ed.). (2006). Professional Development for Leaders and Managers of Self-Governing Schools. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Petropoulos, N., & Maguire, R. (2013). Match Fixing: Case Studies from Greece and Ireland. In M. R. Haberfeld & D. Sheehan (Eds.), Match-Fixing in International Sports: Existing Processes, Law Enforcement, and Prevention Strategies (pp. 89–99). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, April 28). Dolphin Pod Escorts Swimmer Through Shark-Infested Water. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Technology Transfer: Federal Agencies’ Patent Licensing Activities (No. RCED-91-80). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, L. L. (2017). Pacific Psychiatric Group: A Business Plan For a Direct Pay Outpatient Psychiatric Practice (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker, K., Shah, P. Z., Goldstein, J., & Silver-Greenberg, J. (2016, September 24). From Class Clown to Manhattan Bomb Suspect. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giessibl, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Giessibl, 2013; Hess & Tsakmakidis, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hess & Tsakmakidis, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Shiono, Matsugaki, & Takeda, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chiba et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intercultural Communication Research
AbbreviationJ. Intercult. Commun. Res.
ISSN (print)1747-5759
ISSN (online)1747-5767
Cultural Studies

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