How to format your references using the Journal of Intercultural Communication Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Intercultural Communication Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnabel, J. (2010). Secrets of the shaking palsy. Nature, 466(7310), S2-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ashlin, A., & Ladle, R. J. (2006). Science communication. Environmental science adrift in the blogosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5771), 201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amorisco, N. C., Evans, N. W., & van de Ven, G. (2014). The remnant of a merger between two dwarf galaxies in Andromeda II. Nature, 507(7492), 335–337.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Leonov, I., Poteryaev, A. I., Gornostyrev, Y. N., Lichtenstein, A. I., Katsnelson, M. I., Anisimov, V. I., & Vollhardt, D. (2014). Electronic correlations determine the phase stability of iron up to the melting temperature. Scientific Reports, 4, 5585.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jacquenet, C., Bourdon, G., & Boucadair, M. (2008). Service Automation and Dynamic Provisioning Techniques in IP/MPLS Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hamer, C. (2010). Learn Blackberry Games Development (A. Davison, Ed.). Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Sakti, S., Nakamura, S., Markov, K., & Minker, W. (2009). Conclusions and Future Directions. In S. Nakamura, K. Markov, & S. Sakti (Eds.), Incorporating Knowledge Sources into Statistical Speech Recognition (pp. 1–5). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 9). This Technique Could Detect Radiation Up To 1 Kilometer Away. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Vocational Rehabilitation: Better Measures and Monitoring Could Improve the Performance of the VR Program (GAO-05-865). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wonnacott, C. J. (2017). Ambiguity in Theory and Neutrality in Practice: The Allied Intervention and the American Expeditionary Force in Siberia [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, January 20). Smile When You Say It: Same Old Jets. New York Times, B25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schnabel, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ashlin & Ladle, 2006; Schnabel, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ashlin & Ladle, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Amorisco et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Leonov et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Intercultural Communication Research
AbbreviationJ. Intercult. Commun. Res.
ISSN (print)1747-5759
ISSN (online)1747-5767
Cultural Studies

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