How to format your references using the Journal of Insect Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Insect Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Middelburg JJ (2015) Oceanography. Escape by dilution. Science 348:290
A journal article with 2 authors
Coates JC, de Bono M (2002) Antagonistic pathways in neurons exposed to body fluid regulate social feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 419:925–929
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsukahara T, Tanno Y, Watanabe Y (2010) Phosphorylation of the CPC by Cdk1 promotes chromosome bi-orientation. Nature 467:719–723
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Nair DT, Johnson RE, Prakash L, et al (2005) Rev1 employs a novel mechanism of DNA synthesis using a protein template. Science 309:2219–2222

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahalos JN (2006) Orthogonal Methods for Array Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Yamada KMT, Winnewisser G (eds) (2011) Interstellar Molecules: Their Laboratory and Interstellar Habitat. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Desbordes D, Presles H-N (2012) Multi-Scaled Cellular Detonation. In: Zhang F (ed) Shock Waves Science and Technology Library, Vol. 6: Detonation Dynamics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 281–338

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Insect Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Captive Chimpanzees To Be Classified As Endangered. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Recovery Act: Broadband Programs Are Ongoing, and Agencies’ Efforts Would Benefit from Improved Data Quality. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins J (2012) Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2017) With Trump and Press: Much Heat, Little Light. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Middelburg 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Coates and de Bono 2002; Middelburg 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Coates and de Bono 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Nair et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Insect Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Insect Behav.
ISSN (print)0892-7553
ISSN (online)1572-8889
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Insect Science

Other styles