How to format your references using the Journal of Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conner JK: Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population. Nature 2002;420:407–410.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spencer JR, Denk T: Formation of Iapetus’ extreme albedo dichotomy by exogenically triggered thermal ice migration. Science 2010;327:432–435.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tex DM, Kamiya I, Kanemitsu Y: Control of hot-carrier relaxation for realizing ideal quantum-dot intermediate-band solar cells. Sci Rep 2014;4:4125.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Siani G, Paterne M, Michel E, Sulpizio R, Sbrana A, Arnold M, et al.: Mediterranean Sea surface radiocarbon reservoir age changes since the last glacial maximum. Science 2001;294:1917–1920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson RL, Murtha FF: MarketPsych. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Pardalos PM, Georgiev PG, Papajorgji P, Neugaard B (eds): Systems Analysis Tools for Better Health Care Delivery. New York, NY, Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Hava D, Kwok-bun C: Explaining Charisma: A Constructivist View; in Kwok-bun C (ed): Charismatic Leadership in Singapore: Three Extraordinary People. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2012, pp 39–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew E: Adorable New Species Of Peacock Spider Discovered. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Small Business Innovation Research: Change in Program Eligibility Has Had Little Impact. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sowers PA: “Klanaheim”: Suburbia, civic identity, and the second Ku Klux Klan 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B: Theater; Dancer Plays a Dancer. New York Times 2016;AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innate Immunity
AbbreviationJ. Innate Immun.
ISSN (print)1662-811X
ISSN (online)1662-8128
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

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