How to format your references using the Journal of Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kassen R. If you want to win the game, you must join in. Nature. 2011 Dec;480(7376):153.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fragoso G, Spencer T. Physiographic control on the development of Spartina marshes. Science. 2008 Nov;322(5904):1064.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pauly D, Hilborn R, Branch TA. Fisheries: Does catch reflect abundance? Nature. 2013 Feb;494(7437):303–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hirschberg JH, Brunsveld L, Ramzi A, Vekemans JA, Sijbesma RP, Meijer EW. Helical self-assembled polymers from cooperative stacking of hydrogen-bonded pairs. Nature. 2000 Sep;407(6801):167–70.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rassool GH. Addiction for Nurses. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Ramady MA, editor. The Political Economy of Wasta: Use and Abuse of Social Capital Networking. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Székely Á, Andrighetto G, Nardin LG. Social Norms and Extortion Rackets. In: Elsenbroich C, Anzola D, Gilbert N, editors. Social Dimensions of Organised Crime: Modelling the Dynamics of Extortion Rackets. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016; pp 49–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew E. Shortlist Finalists Have Been Announced for Sony World Photography Awards [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Feb [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Factors Affecting Efforts to Improve Air Service at Small Community Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson AC. The lived experience of the adult African American female who has lived in multiple foster care placements. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; On Road as Equal Partners In New Kind of Political Act. New York Times. 1992 Jul;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innate Immunity
AbbreviationJ. Innate Immun.
ISSN (print)1662-811X
ISSN (online)1662-8128
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

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