How to format your references using the Journal of Innate Immunity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Innate Immunity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shelton JD. HIV/AIDS. ARVs as HIV prevention: a tough road to wide impact. Science. 2011 Dec;334(6063):1645–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benartzi S, Thaler RH. Economics. Behavioral economics and the retirement savings crisis. Science. 2013 Mar;339(6124):1152–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Howes PD, Chandrawati R, Stevens MM. Bionanotechnology. Colloidal nanoparticles as advanced biological sensors. Science. 2014 Oct;346(6205):1247390.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Toppani A, Robert F, Libourel G, de Donato P, Barres O, d’Hendecourt L, et al. A “dry” condensation origin for circumstellar carbonates. Nature. 2005 Oct;437(7062):1121–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pietersen W. Strategic Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Kan JH. Pediatric and Adolescent Musculoskeletal MRI: A Case-Based Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Puzio L, Peters JF. Nearness of Subtly Different Digital Images. In: Peters JF, Skowron A, Ramanna S, Suraj Z, Wang X, editors. Transactions on Rough Sets XVI. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013; pp 73–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Innate Immunity.

Blog post
Andrew E. The Hunt: A Natural History Series That Challenges Us To Side With The Predators [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Nov


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Research: Perspectives on FAA’s Efforts to Develop New Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dias J. Factors associated with poor oral health among older adults. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. New App Will Offer Liner Notes for the Digital Era. New York Times. 2017 Sep;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Innate Immunity
AbbreviationJ. Innate Immun.
ISSN (print)1662-811X
ISSN (online)1662-8128
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

Other styles