How to format your references using the Frontiers in Food Microbiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Food Microbiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers, M. G., Jr (2009). Cell biology. Moonlighting in mitochondria. Science 323, 723–724.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowland, D. C., and Moser, M.-B. (2015). Neuroscience: A three-dimensional neural compass. Nature 517, 156–157.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hoeppner, D. J., Hengartner, M. O., and Schnabel, R. (2001). Engulfment genes cooperate with ced-3 to promote cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 412, 202–206.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim, S. O., Solak, H. H., Stoykovich, M. P., Ferrier, N. J., De Pablo, J. J., and Nealey, P. F. (2003). Epitaxial self-assembly of block copolymers on lithographically defined nanopatterned substrates. Nature 424, 411–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell, A. K. (2014). Intracellular Calcium. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mangiameli, S. ed. (2014). Italian Regionalism: Between Unitary Traditions and Federal Processes: Investigating Italy’s Form of State. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Panda, R. K. (2015). “Trend and Pattern of Crop Diversification in Odisha,” in Diversification of Agriculture in Eastern India India Studies in Business and Economics., eds. M. Ghosh, D. Sarkar, and B. C. Roy (New Delhi: Springer India), 59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Food Microbiology.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014). First Ebola Case Diagnosed in the U.S. Confirmed. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016). Information Technology: Better Management of Interdependencies between Programs Supporting 2020 Census Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bracht, K. D. (2010). Causes of nonattendance and its effect on student achievement at the high school level.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B. (2015). Bible Study Group Devolved Into a Lethal Sect. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Myers, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Myers, 2009; Rowland and Moser, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowland and Moser, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Food Microbiology
AbbreviationFront. Microbiol.
ISSN (online)1664-302X
Microbiology (medical)

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