How to format your references using the Journal of Information Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Information Technology (JIT). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Quackenbush, J. (2014). Perspective: Learning to share, Nature 509(7502): S68.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nath, D. and Shadan, S. (2009). The ubiquitin system, Nature 458(7237): 421.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kuhn, J. R., Emilio, M. and Bush, R. (2009). Comment on ‘A large excess in apparent solar oblateness due to surface magnetism’, Science (New York, N.Y.) 324(5931): 1143; author reply 1143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jaramillo, C., Ochoa, D., Contreras, L., Pagani, M., Carvajal-Ortiz, H., Pratt, L. M., Krishnan, S., Cardona, A., Romero, M., Quiroz, L., Rodriguez, G., Rueda, M. J., de la Parra, F., Morón, S., Green, W., Bayona, G., Montes, C., Quintero, O., Ramirez, R., Mora, G., Schouten, S., Bermudez, H., Navarrete, R., Parra, F., Alvarán, M., Osorno, J., Crowley, J. L., Valencia, V. and Vervoort, J. (2010). Effects of rapid global warming at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary on neotropical vegetation, Science (New York, N.Y.) 330(6006): 957–961.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonk, C. J. (2011). The World is Open, San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass.
An edited book
Knoll, T. and Pearle, M. S. (Eds.). (2013). Clinical Management of Urolithiasis, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Owen, B. M. and Rosston, G. L. (2006). Local Broadband Access: Primum Non Nocere or Primum Processi? A Property Rights Approach, In T. M. Lenard & R. J. May (Eds.), Net Neutrality or Net Neutering: Should Broadband Internet Services Be Regulated, Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 163–194.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Information Technology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, March 31). Extinct Megafauna Dug These Incredible Tunnels In Brazil, IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Information Technology: A Model to Help Managers Decrease Acquisition Risks (No. IMTEC-8.1.6), Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos, J. (2017). Surviving Childhood Bullying: Impact on Psychosocial Well-Being in Adulthood (Doctoral dissertation).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, September 7). Film Series, New York Times, p. C22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Quackenbush, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Nath and Shadan, 2009; Quackenbush, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nath and Shadan, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Jaramillo et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Information Technology
AbbreviationJ. Inf. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-3962
ISSN (online)1466-4437
ScopeStrategy and Management
Information Systems
Library and Information Sciences

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