How to format your references using the Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kasliwal MM. Astrophysics. Seeing gravitational waves. Science. 2013; 340(6132):555–556.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillson L, Hoffman MT. Ecology. Rangeland ecology in a changing world. Science. 2007; 315(5808):53–54.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanabe K, Sakihama N, Kaneko A. Stable SNPs in malaria antigen genes in isolated populations. Science. 2004; 303(5657):493.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Deàk JC, Pang Y, Sechler TD, Wang Z, Dlott DD. Vibrational energy transfer across a reverse micelle surfactant layer. Science. 2004; 306(5695):473–476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Wen E, Ellis R, S. Pujar N. Vaccine Development and Manufacturing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Priami C, Breitling R, Gilbert D, Heiner M, Uhrmacher AM, editors. Transactions on Computational Systems Biology XII: Special Issue on Modeling Methodologies. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Park YA, Karadkar U, Furuta R. Component-Based Authoring of Complex, Petri net-based Digital Library Infrastructure. In: Lalmas M, Jose J, Rauber A, Sebastiani F, Frommholz I, editors. Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries: 14th European Conference, ECDL 2010, Glasgow, UK, September 6-10, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 22–29.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrews R. Mysterious Martian Plumes May Have Been Caused By Powerful Solar Ejections [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Report Entitled “The Federal Program To Strengthen Developing Institutions of Higher Education Lacks Direction.” Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Nov. Report No.: 110837.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Laubacher TL. Simplifying “Inherently Governmental” Functions: Choosing between a Principled Approach or More of the Same [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. More Than Moussaka. New York Times. 2010; :NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0022-1899
ISSN (online)1537-6613
ScopeImmunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases

Other styles