How to format your references using the Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. Developing countries and poorest people targeted by UN centre. Nature. 2000; 408(6813):754.
A journal article with 2 authors
Killingsworth MA, Gilbert DT. A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science. 2010; 330(6006):932.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson B, Cole WW, Barrett SCH. Botany: specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination. Nature. 2005; 435(7038):41–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dollar GL, Weber U, Mlodzik M, Sokol SY. Regulation of Lethal giant larvae by Dishevelled. Nature. 2005; 437(7063):1376–1380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano A. Liquidity Management. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Molva R, Tsudik G, Westhoff D, editors. Security and Privacy in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks: Second European Workshop, ESAS 2005, Visegrad, Hungary, July 13-14, 2005. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Pestana EA, Belak S, Diallo A, Crowther JR, Viljoen GJ. Disease Diagnosis Using Real-Time PCR Specific Procedures for Important Veterinary Pathogens. In: Belak S, Diallo A, Crowther JR, Viljoen GJ, editors. Early, rapid and sensitive veterinary molecular diagnostics - real time PCR applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 73–234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Alloy Can Withstand 10 Million Transformations [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Buys: Air Force Logistics Modernization Program Should Comply With Brooks Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 May. Report No.: IMTEC-86-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lanza KM. The antecedents of automotive brand loyalty and repurchase intentions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 67 Dogs, Some Hot and Some Sly, Have Their Day. New York Times. 2001; :144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0022-1899
ISSN (online)1537-6613
ScopeImmunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases

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