How to format your references using the Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Inan U. Atmospheric science. Gamma rays made on Earth. Science. 2005; 307(5712):1054–1055.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeates TO, Beeby M. Biochemistry. Proteins in a small world. Science. 2006; 314(5807):1882–1883.
A journal article with 3 authors
Franco A, Malhotra N, Simonovits G. Social science. Publication bias in the social sciences: unlocking the file drawer. Science. 2014; 345(6203):1502–1505.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schulz KG, Zondervan I, Gerringa LJA, Timmermans KR, Veldhuis MJW, Riebesell U. Effect of trace metal availability on coccolithophorid calcification. Nature. 2004; 430(7000):673–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yavaş M. Applied English Phonology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Cheng I-H, Chan S-J, editors. International Education Aid in Developing Asia: Policies and Practices. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Baradaran Hashemi H, Shakery A, Faili H. Creating a Persian-English Comparable Corpus. In: Agosti M, Ferro N, Peters C, Rijke M de, Smeaton A, editors. Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access Evaluation: International Conference of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2010, Padua, Italy, September 20-23, 2010 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 27–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mutant Red-Fanged Funnel-Web Spider Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. CETA Programs for Disadvantaged Adults: What Do We Know About Their Enrollees, Services, and Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Jun. Report No.: IPE-82-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magner TJ. Performance and leadership in multiplayer online gaming [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Galam S. Abstention, France’s last temptation. New York Times. 2017; :0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationJ. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0022-1899
ISSN (online)1537-6613
ScopeImmunology and Allergy
Infectious Diseases

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