How to format your references using the Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. The Gonzo Scientist. How astronomers have fun (and nearly die trying). Science. 2008 Sep;321(5894):1297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sebolt-Leopold JS, English JM. Mechanisms of drug inhibition of signalling molecules. Nature. 2006 May;441(7092):457–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu G-Z, Radtke G, Botton GA. Bonding and structure of a reconstructed (001) surface of SrTiO3 from TEM. Nature. 2012 Oct;490(7420):384–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Szakonyi G, Guthridge JM, Li D, Young K, Holers VM, Chen XS. Structure of complement receptor 2 in complex with its C3d ligand. Science. 2001 Jun;292(5522):1725–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonnini S, Corain L, Marozzi M, Salmaso L. Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing: Rank and Permutation Methods with Applications in R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Heidergott B, editor. Max-Plus Linear Stochastic Systems and Perturbation Analysis. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Eberspächer J, Schollmeier R. 5. First and Second Generation of Peer-to-Peer Systems. In: Steinmetz R, Wehrle K, editors. Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005; pp 35–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra.

Blog post
Andrews R. California Just Signed A New Climate Change Agreement With China [Internet]. IFLScience. 2017 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Initial Pilot Training: Better Management Controls Are Needed to Improve FAA Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harper T. Going public, staying private, and everything in between. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A Glimpse of Vaudeville In a Renovated Movie House. New York Times. 2002 Jan;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebrovascular Diseases Extra
AbbreviationCerebrovasc. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5456

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