How to format your references using the Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hahn R. Ronald Harry Coase (1910-2013). Nature. 2013 Oct;502(7472):449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Perry B, Sones K. Science for development. Poverty reduction through animal health. Science. 2007 Jan;315(5810):333–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Surdutovich E, Yakubovich AV, Solov’yov AV. Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1289.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Muttoni G, Erba E, Kent DV, Bachtadse V. Mesozoic Alpine facies deposition as a result of past latitudinal plate motion. Nature. 2005 Mar;434(7029):59–63.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Frueh BC, Grubaugh AL, Elhai JD, Ford JD. Assessment and Treatment Planning for PTSD. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Hu J. Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Network-Induced Phenomena: Recursive Filtering and Sliding-Mode Design. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Gold C. Spatial Embedding and Spatial Context. In: Rothermel K, Fritsch D, Blochinger W, Dürr F, editors. Quality of Context: First International Workshop, QuaCon 2009, Stuttgart, Germany, June 25-26, 2009. Revised Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009; pp 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E. LightSail has Disintegrated in our Atmosphere [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. OPM Retirement Modernization: Progress Has Been Hindered by Longstanding Information Technology Management Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Noll RT. Physician acceptance of Computerized Physician Order Entry in outpatient settings: A quantitative analysis of family medicine within Maricopa County, Arizona. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Redemption Is in Burress’s Sizable Reach. New York Times. 2011 Oct;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebrovascular Diseases Extra
AbbreviationCerebrovasc. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5456

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