How to format your references using the Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V. Next-generation sequencing: The genome jigsaw. Nature. 2013 Sep;501(7466):263–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Snaith HA, Sawin KE. Fission yeast mod5p regulates polarized growth through anchoring of tea1p at cell tips. Nature. 2003 Jun;423(6940):647–51.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hovenden MJ, Newton PCD, Wills KE. Seasonal not annual rainfall determines grassland biomass response to carbon dioxide. Nature. 2014 Jul;511(7511):583–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu J, Özdemir SK, Yilmaz H, Peng B, Dong M, Tomes M, et al. Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering. Sci Rep. 2014 Sep;4:6396.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan J-F. Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 1. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Komatineni S. Pro Android 4. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Cooke R. The Precipice of Myth: Mythology/Epistemology. In: Bliesemann de Guevara B, editor. Myth and Narrative in International Politics: Interpretive Approaches to the Study of IR. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016; pp 67–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E. Insects Are the Great Survivors in Evolution: New Study [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Nov [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Depository Institutions: Contracting Practices With Data Processing Servicers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wisdom V. Reverie: A portal to the numinous—an exploration into early childhood psychospiritual awareness. 2015

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Puerto Rico Has Another Debt Worry on Horizon. New York Times. 2015 Aug;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebrovascular Diseases Extra
AbbreviationCerebrovasc. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5456

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