How to format your references using the Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich PB. Climate Change. The carbon dioxide exchange. Science. 2010 Aug;329(5993):774–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Antonakis J, Dalgas O. Predicting elections: child’s play! Science. 2009 Feb;323(5918):1183.
A journal article with 3 authors
Christensen UR, Holzwarth V, Reiners A. Energy flux determines magnetic field strength of planets and stars. Nature. 2009 Jan;457(7226):167–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seal RP, Wang X, Guan Y, Raja SN, Woodbury CJ, Basbaum AI, et al. Injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity requires C-low threshold mechanoreceptors. Nature. 2009 Dec;462(7273):651–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marteel-Parrish AE, Abraham MA. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
Büchler MW, Weitz J, Ulrich B, Heald RJ, editors. Rectal Cancer Treatment. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Pule-Meulenberg F. Root-Nodule Bacteria of Legumes Growing in Semi-Arid African Soils and Other Areas of the World. In: Maheshwari DK, editor. Bacterial Diversity in Sustainable Agriculture. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014; pp 101–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra.

Blog post
Andrew E. Fishy Robot Designed To Dunk Into Europa’s Oceans [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 May [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Response to Request for Views on Application of P.L. 99-177 to Teacher Loan Cancellations]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mc Adams AN. School psychologists’ perceptions of procedural fidelity in special education. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. The Court Changes the Game. New York Times. 2009 Jun;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebrovascular Diseases Extra
AbbreviationCerebrovasc. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5456

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