How to format your references using the Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman M: Feedback control of intercellular signalling in development. Nature 2000;408:313–319.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steele EJ, Blanden RV: Lamarck and antibody genes. Science 2000;288:2318d–9d.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brennan MD, Cheong R, Levchenko A: Systems biology. How information theory handles cell signaling and uncertainty. Science 2012;338:334–335.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yan H, Yu H, Xing W, Xiao Y, Zhang H, Pei L, et al.: Development of a proficiency testing program for the HIV-1 BED incidence assay in China. Sci Rep 2014;4:4512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spector P: Understanding Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016.
An edited book
Leibe B, Matas J, Sebe N, Welling M (eds): Computer Vision – ECCV 2016: 14th European Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 11–14, 2016, Proceedings, Part VII. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Yoccoz J-C: Small Divisors: Number Theory in Dynamical Systems; in Schleicher D, Lackmann M (eds): An Invitation to Mathematics: From Competitions to Research. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 43–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra.

Blog post
Fang J: Existence of Exotic Hadron Confirmed. IFLScience 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: University Funding: Assessing Federal Funding Mechanisms for University Research. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hertzman R: Yemen’s migrant networks as critical factor in political opposition to the Imamate 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L: Divide and Conquer. New York Times 2014;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCerebrovascular Diseases Extra
AbbreviationCerebrovasc. Dis. Extra
ISSN (online)1664-5456

Other styles