How to format your references using the Frontiers of Architectural Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Architectural Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M., 2011. Microscopy: Bright light, better labels. Nature 478, 137–142.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sonenberg, N., Pause, A., 2006. Signal transduction. Protein synthesis and oncogenesis meet again. Science 314, 428–429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, J., Van Dyken, J.D., Zee, P.C., 2010. A generalization of Hamilton’s rule for the evolution of microbial cooperation. Science 328, 1700–1703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Okamoto, H., Yonemori, F., Wakitani, K., Minowa, T., Maeda, K., Shinkai, H., 2000. A cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor attenuates atherosclerosis in rabbits. Nature 406, 203–207.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimon, R., 2013. Enterprise Performance Management Done Right. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Taylor, R.H., Yang, G.-Z. (Eds.), 2011. Information Processing in Computer-Assisted Interventions: Second International Conference, IPCAI 2011, Berlin, Germany, June 22, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Wiers-Jenssen, J., 2008. Career Impacts of Student Mobility, in: Gornitzka, Å., Langfeldt, L. (Eds.), Borderless Knowledge: Understanding the “New” Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway, Higher Education Dynamics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 79–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Claim They Have Created Sperm In The Lab For The First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. FBI: Advanced Communications Technologies Pose Wiretapping Challenges (No. IMTEC-92-68BR). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Van Vlack, K.A., 2012. Puaxant tuvip: Powerlands Southern Paiute cultural landscapes and pilgrimage trails (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2008. Justices Add More Cases On Job Discrimination. New York Times A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2011; Sonenberg and Pause, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sonenberg and Pause, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Okamoto et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Architectural Research
AbbreviationFront. Arch. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-2635

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