How to format your references using the Frontiers of Architectural Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Architectural Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keller, R., 2012. Developmental biology. Physical biology returns to morphogenesis. Science 338, 201–203.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heilbron, J.L., Bynum, W.F., 2002. 1902 and all that. Nature 415, 15–18.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gordon, A.L., Susanto, R.D., Vranes, K., 2003. Cool Indonesian throughflow as a consequence of restricted surface layer flow. Nature 425, 824–828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lebreton, S., Grabe, V., Omondi, A.B., Ignell, R., Becher, P.G., Hansson, B.S., Sachse, S., Witzgall, P., 2014. Love makes smell blind: mating suppresses pheromone attraction in Drosophila females via Or65a olfactory neurons. Sci. Rep. 4, 7119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Feyel, P., 2013. Loop-shaping Robust Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Abramowicz, W., Fensel, D. (Eds.), 2008. Business Information Systems: 11th International Conference, BIS 2008, Innsbruck, Austria, May 5-7, 2008. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Marshall, A.W., Olkin, I., Arnold, B.C., 2011. Preservation and Generation of Majorization, in: Olkin, I., Arnold, B.C. (Eds.), Inequalities: Theory of Majorization and Its Applications, Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 165–202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Peculiar Ancient Marine Reptile Reveals Life Evolved Rapidly After 'Great Dying” Apocalypse [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Regulatory Initiatives of the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (No. GAO-01-885R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kress, D.M., 2008. A phenomenological study exploring executive coaching: Understanding perceptions of self-awareness and leadership behavior changes (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum, M.M., 2017. Fox Trades Motto of ‘Fair and Balanced’ for ‘Most Watched, Most Trusted.’ New York Times B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Keller, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Heilbron and Bynum, 2002; Keller, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heilbron and Bynum, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lebreton et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Architectural Research
AbbreviationFront. Arch. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-2635

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