How to format your references using the Frontiers of Architectural Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Architectural Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cavalli, G., 2012. Molecular biology. EZH2 goes solo. Science 338, 1430–1431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood, B., Harrison, T., 2011. The evolutionary context of the first hominins. Nature 470, 347–352.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jockers, M.L., Sag, M., Schultz, J., 2012. Digital archives: Don’t let copyright block data mining. Nature 490, 29–30.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Su, T.-W., Choi, I., Feng, J., Huang, K., McLeod, E., Ozcan, A., 2013. Sperm trajectories form chiral ribbons. Sci. Rep. 3, 1664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, J., 2013. Way of the Trade. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Papavassiliou, S., Ruehrup, S. (Eds.), 2015. Ad-hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 14th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2015, Athens, Greece, June 29 -- July 1, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Aho, T., 2016. Reality TV and Its Audiences Reconsidered: Class and Poverty in Undercover Boss (CBS), in: Lemke, S., Schniedermann, W. (Eds.), Class Divisions in Serial Television. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp. 89–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Dolphins get high on pufferfish toxin [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Guaranteed Student Loans: Lenders’ Interest Billings Often Result in Overpayments (No. HRD-88-72). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lenz, R.M., 2017. Iron, Arsenic, and Elevated Salinity in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Aquifer of Louisiana (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1995. PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times 1315.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cavalli, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Cavalli, 2012; Wood and Harrison, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood and Harrison, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Su et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Architectural Research
AbbreviationFront. Arch. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-2635

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