How to format your references using the Frontiers of Architectural Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Architectural Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Czeisler, C.A., 2013. Perspective: casting light on sleep deficiency. Nature 497, S13.
A journal article with 2 authors
McInerney, J.O., Pisani, D., 2007. Genetics. Paradigm for life. Science 318, 1390–1391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood, Z.A., Poole, L.B., Karplus, P.A., 2003. Peroxiredoxin evolution and the regulation of hydrogen peroxide signaling. Science 300, 650–653.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Neuner, J., Filser, S., Michalakis, S., Biel, M., Herms, J., 2014. A30P α-Synuclein interferes with the stable integration of adult-born neurons into the olfactory network. Sci. Rep. 4, 3931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Belfiore, L.A., 2010. Physical Properties of Macromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mitasiunas, A., Rout, T., O’Connor, R.V., Dorling, A. (Eds.), 2014. Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination: 14th International Conference, SPICE 2014, Vilnius, Lithuania, November 4-6, 2014, Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Mucic, D., 2016. Cross-Cultural Telepsychiatry: An Innovative Approach to Assess and Treat Ethnic Minorities with Limited Language Proficiency, in: Chen, Y.-W., Tanaka, S., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), Innovation in Medicine and Healthcare 2016, Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Australian Trees And Termite Mounds Hint At Hidden Gold Caches [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Tax Systems Modernization: Input Processing Strategy is Risky and Lacks a Sound Analytical Basis (No. T-IMTEC-92-15). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Haire, K.K., 2015. Elucidation of the Role of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase in Drug-Induced Toxicity (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2016. Resetting the Post-Scalia Supreme Court. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Czeisler, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Czeisler, 2013; McInerney and Pisani, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (McInerney and Pisani, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Neuner et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Architectural Research
AbbreviationFront. Arch. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-2635

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