How to format your references using the Frontiers of Architectural Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Architectural Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
MacWilliams, B., 2003. Russia pulls out of Antarctic station. Nature 422, 104.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li, D., Caffrey, M., 2014. Renaturing membrane proteins in the lipid cubic phase, a nanoporous membrane mimetic. Sci. Rep. 4, 5806.
A journal article with 3 authors
Blumenstock, J., Cadamuro, G., On, R., 2015. Predicting poverty and wealth from mobile phone metadata. Science 350, 1073–1076.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, H., Westin, L., Nong, Y., Birnbaum, S., Bendor, J., Brismar, H., Nestler, E., Aperia, A., Flajolet, M., Greengard, P., 2009. Norbin is an endogenous regulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling. Science 326, 1554–1557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vanbésien, O., 2012. Artificial Materials. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Madanhire, I., 2016. Mitigating Environmental Impact of Petroleum Lubricants. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Newsholme, P., Keane, K., Gaudel, C., McClenaghan, N., 2015. (Dys)Regulation of Insulin Secretion by Macronutrients, in: Islam, M.S. (Ed.), Islets of Langerhans. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 129–156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Thunderstorm In Australia Sparks Thousands Of Asthma Attacks and Kills Four People [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Information Technology: The Federal Enterprise Architecture and Agencies’ Enterprise Architectures Are Still Maturing (No. GAO-04-798T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janairo, B., 2017. Recovering Together: A Psychosocial Support Group for Young Adults with Schizophrenia and the People in Their Lives: A Grant Proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2006. QUICK BITE/Newark; The Best of Brazil. New York Times 14NJ19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (MacWilliams, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Li and Caffrey, 2014; MacWilliams, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Caffrey, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Architectural Research
AbbreviationFront. Arch. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-2635

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