How to format your references using the Frontiers of Architectural Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers of Architectural Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goff, J.A., 2015. Comment on “Glacial cycles drive variations in the production of oceanic crust.” Science 349, 1065.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nesbit, J., Bradford, M., 2007. 2007 visualization challenge. Science 317, 1857.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hong, Y., Wang, Z., Jin, X., 2013. Sulfuric acid intercalated graphite oxide for graphene preparation. Sci. Rep. 3, 3439.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pufall, M.A., Lee, G.M., Nelson, M.L., Kang, H.-S., Velyvis, A., Kay, L.E., McIntosh, L.P., Graves, B.J., 2005. Variable control of Ets-1 DNA binding by multiple phosphates in an unstructured region. Science 309, 142–145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Higgs, P.G., Attwood, T.K., 2004. Bioinformatics and Molecular Evolution. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Malden, MA USA.
An edited book
Harrison, S.D., Welch, G.F., Adler, A. (Eds.), 2012. Perspectives on Males and Singing, Landscapes: the Arts, Aesthetics, and Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Roberts, A.R., Yeager, K.R., 2012. Tipi di crisi, in: Yeager, K.R. (Ed.), Gli Interventi Sulla Crisi: Una Guida Pratica. Springer, Milano, pp. 13–15.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers of Architectural Research.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2015. Hubble Reveals Incredible Last Moments Of A Dying Star [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Telecommunications: Broadband Deployment Plan Should Include Performance Goals and Measures to Guide Federal Investment (No. GAO-09-494). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shaker, M., 2015. Design of Front End Circuits for a Low Power Ultra Wide Band Receiver (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hiltner, S., Lehman, S., 2017. Finding an Expansive View of a Forgotten People in Niger. New York Times A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goff, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Goff, 2015; Nesbit and Bradford, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nesbit and Bradford, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Pufall et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers of Architectural Research
AbbreviationFront. Arch. Res.
ISSN (print)2095-2635

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