How to format your references using the Journal of Immunological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Immunological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C., 2006. Ticking the right boxes. Nature 439, 533.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huppert, H.E., Woods, A.W., 2002. The role of volatiles in magma chamber dynamics. Nature 420, 493–495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gong, Y., Mo, C., Fraser, S.E., 2004. Planar cell polarity signalling controls cell division orientation during zebrafish gastrulation. Nature 430, 689–693.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Beck, R.D., Maroni, P., Papageorgopoulos, D.C., Dang, T.T., Schmid, M.P., Rizzo, T.R., 2003. Vibrational mode-specific reaction of methane on a nickel surface. Science 302, 98–100.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamperti, J.W., 1996. Probability: A Survey of the Mathematical Theory, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cristofaro, E.D., Murdoch, S.J. (Eds.), 2014. Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 14th International Symposium, PETS 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 16-18, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
West, B.J., 2009. Control from an Allometric Perspective, in: Sternad, D. (Ed.), Progress in Motor Control: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 57–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Immunological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Why Do Only Some People Get ‘Skin Orgasms’ From Listening To Music? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Motor Vehicle Safety: Selected Rulemakings by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (No. RCED-89-11FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, G.S., 2008. The relationship between legislative implementations and educator readiness in inclusive educational environments (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt, L.F., 2007. Neighbors Protest Flea Market’s Move to Belmont Park. New York Times 14NJ7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Huppert and Woods, 2002; Macilwain, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huppert and Woods, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Beck et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Immunological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Immunol. Methods
ISSN (print)0022-1759
Immunology and Allergy

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