How to format your references using the Journal of Immunological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Immunological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weinberg, R., 2010. Point: Hypotheses first. Nature 464, 678.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones, R.H., Flynn, K.J., 2005. Nutritional status and diet composition affect the value of diatoms as copepod prey. Science 307, 1457–1459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conard, N.J., Malina, M., Münzel, S.C., 2009. New flutes document the earliest musical tradition in southwestern Germany. Nature 460, 737–740.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wunderlich, T., Akgenc, B., Eckern, U., Schuster, C., Schwingenschlögl, U., 2013. Modified Li chains as atomic switches. Sci. Rep. 3, 2605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pérez, A., 2013. Mobile Networks Architecture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA.
An edited book
Thauer, C.R., Wendt, C. (Eds.), 2016. Thucydides and Political Order: Concepts of Order and the History of the Peloponnesian War. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Anand, R., Das, S., Khera, P., 2016. Monetary Policy Transmission in the Presence of Product and Labor Market Frictions: The Case of India, in: Ghate, C., Kletzer, K.M. (Eds.), Monetary Policy in India: A Modern Macroeconomic Perspective. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 151–169.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Immunological Methods.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. Galapagos Giant Tortoises Make A Comeback, Thanks To Innovative Conservation Strategies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. National Science Foundation Conflict of Interest Problems With Grants to Short Term Employees (No. PAD-81-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adelman, S.W., 2009. Early childhood nutritional responses to targeted food aid and social network disruptions in Ugandan internally displaced person’s camps (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. A New Justice, an Old Plea: More Money for the Bench. New York Times 113.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alexandrov, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bystricky, 2003; Christian, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jones and Flynn, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Niven et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Immunological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Immunol. Methods
ISSN (print)0022-1759
Immunology and Allergy

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