How to format your references using the Journal of Immunological Methods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Immunological Methods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kauer, J.S., 2002. On the scents of smell in the salamander. Nature 417, 336–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lollar, B.S., McCollom, T.M., 2006. Geochemistry: biosignatures and abiotic constraints on early life. Nature 444, E18; discussion E18-9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tayagaki, T., Hoshi, Y., Usami, N., 2013. Investigation of the open-circuit voltage in solar cells doped with quantum dots. Sci. Rep. 3, 2703.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sheehy, A.M., Gaddis, N.C., Choi, J.D., Malim, M.H., 2002. Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed by the viral Vif protein. Nature 418, 646–650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahlemeyer-Stubbe, A., Coleman, S., 2014. A Practical Guide to Data Mining for Business and Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Borghesi, S., 2016. The European Emission Trading System and Its Followers: Comparative Analysis and Linking Perspectives, SpringerBriefs in Environmental Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Carr, L.P., Nanni, A.J., 2009. Organizational Fitness: Culture and Values, in: Nanni, A.J., Jr. (Ed.), Delivering Results: Managing What Matters. Springer US, New York, NY, pp. 59–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Immunological Methods.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Scientists Have Found A Meteorite From The Edge Of The Solar System [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. GAO’s Views on SDIO’s Phase I Cost Estimate (No. T-NSIAD-89-18). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Montano, M., 2010. Supporting juvenile offenders reentering the community: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Berkon, B., 2016. Jewish Player’s Card From 1914 Provokes a $125,000 Dispute. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kauer, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kauer, 2002; Lollar and McCollom, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lollar and McCollom, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Sheehy et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Immunological Methods
AbbreviationJ. Immunol. Methods
ISSN (print)0022-1759
Immunology and Allergy

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