How to format your references using the Journal of Hydrology X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hydrology X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meijer, D., 2009. Neuroscience. Went fishing, caught a snake. Science 325, 1353–1354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., 2012. Comment on “Disentangling the drivers of β diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients.” Science 335, 1573; author reply 1573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carazo-Salas, R.E., Antony, C., Nurse, P., 2005. The kinesin Klp2 mediates polarization of interphase microtubules in fission yeast. Science 309, 297–300.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shen, D., Bai, M., Tang, R., Xu, B., Ju, X., Pestell, R.G., Achilefu, S., 2013. Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity. Sci. Rep. 3, 1697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter, D.A., 2014. A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bronner, F., Farach-Carson, M.C. (Eds.), 2007. Bone and Osteoarthritis, Topics in Bone Biology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
De Salve, A., Mori, P., Ricci, L., Al-Aaridhi, R., Graffi, K., 2016. Privacy-Preserving Data Allocation in Decentralized Online Social Networks, in: Jelasity, M., Kalyvianaki, E. (Eds.), Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems: 16th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, DAIS 2016, Held as Part of the 11th International Federated Conference on Distributed Computing Techniques, DisCoTec 2016, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 6-9, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hydrology X.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2016. Diesel Cars Emitting More Pollution During Cold Weather [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Polar-Orbiting Satellites: With Costs Increasing and Data Continuity at Risk, Improvements Needed in Tri-agency Decision Making (No. GAO-09-772T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Echols, K.I., 2017. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2017. Man’s Murder Conviction Set Aside at D.A.’s Request. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Meijer, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Meijer, 2009; Tuomisto and Ruokolainen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tuomisto and Ruokolainen, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Shen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hydrology X
ISSN (print)2589-9155

Other styles