How to format your references using the Journal of Heuristics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Heuristics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleppner, D.: Physics. A milestone in time keeping. Science. 319, 1768–1769 (2008)
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, A.J., Poloczanska, E.S.: Ocean science. Under-resourced, under threat. Science. 320, 1294–1295 (2008)
A journal article with 3 authors
Loope, D.B., Rowe, C.M., Joeckel, R.M.: Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes. Nature. 412, 64–66 (2001)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ogunseitan, O.A., Schoenung, J.M., Saphores, J.-D.M., Shapiro, A.A.: Science and regulation. The electronics revolution: from e-wonderland to e-wasteland. Science. 326, 670–671 (2009)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, I.: Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2010. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Backert, S. ed: Inflammasome Signaling and Bacterial Infections. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)
A chapter in an edited book
Dameri, R.P.: From IT Governance to IT Service Delivery. Implementing a Comprehensive Framework at Ansaldo STS. In: Spagnoletti, P. (ed.) Organizational Change and Information Systems: Working and Living Together in New Ways. pp. 33–40. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2013)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Heuristics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Why Study Evolution?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Telecommunications: GSA Action Needs to Realize Benefits of Metropolitan Area Acquisition Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2002)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milner, M.: An evaluation of the influence of case method instruction on the reflective thinking of MSW students, (2009)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Estrin, J.: Stanley Greene, Whose Camera Captured the Brutality of War, Dies at 68, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kleppner 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kleppner 2008; Richardson and Poloczanska 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Poloczanska 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ogunseitan et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Heuristics
AbbreviationJ. Heuristics
ISSN (print)1381-1231
ISSN (online)1572-9397
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Control and Optimization

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