How to format your references using the Journal of Heuristics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Heuristics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom, P.: How do morals change? Nature. 464, 490 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
von Zastrow, M., Mostov, K.: Signal transduction. A new thread in an intricate web. Science. 294, 1845–1847 (2001)
A journal article with 3 authors
Selmecki, A., Forche, A., Berman, J.: Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans. Science. 313, 367–370 (2006)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lewis, A.C., Carslaw, N., Marriott, P.J., Kinghorn, R.M., Morrison, P., Lee, A.L., Bartle, K.D., Pilling, M.J.: A larger pool of ozone-forming carbon compounds in urban atmospheres. Nature. 405, 778–781 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tadros, T.F.: Colloids in Paints. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Ma, M. ed: Current Technology Developments of WiMax Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Lont, M., Milosevic, D., van Roermund, A.: Receiver Front-End Version 1. In: Milosevic, D. and Roermund, A. van (eds.) Wake-up Receiver Based Ultra-Low-Power WBAN. pp. 93–107. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Heuristics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Bacteria Could Be Used To Prevent HIV Infections,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Contracting Strategies: Better Data and Management Needed to Leverage Value of Interagency and Enterprisewide Contracts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2010)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wolfenden, A.: Factors predicting oncology care providers’ behavioral intention to adopt clinical decision support systems, (2012)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B.: Short-Term Cease-Fire in Yemen Appears Likely, (2016)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bloom 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bloom 2010; von Zastrow and Mostov 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (von Zastrow and Mostov 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Lewis et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Heuristics
AbbreviationJ. Heuristics
ISSN (print)1381-1231
ISSN (online)1572-9397
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Control and Optimization

Other styles