How to format your references using the Journal of Heuristics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Heuristics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, S.H.: Biochemistry. Crowds of syntaxins. Science. 317, 1045–1046 (2007)
A journal article with 2 authors
Abbott, A., Cyranoski, D.: Biologists seek to head off future sources of infection. Nature. 423, 3 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Takayanagi, M., Kurisaki, I., Nagaoka, M.: Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure. Sci. Rep. 4, 4601 (2014)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bessereau, J.L., Wright, A., Williams, D.C., Schuske, K., Davis, M.W., Jorgensen, E.M.: Mobilization of a Drosophila transposon in the Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Nature. 413, 70–74 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeish, B.: Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2010)
An edited book
Gornitz, V. ed: Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Bloom, L.B.: DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair. In: Krawetz, S. (ed.) Bioinformatics for Systems Biology. pp. 67–87. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Heuristics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: The Secret Life of Native Bees,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ADP Equipment: Revised GSA Strategy for Microcomputer Purchases Can Improve Competition. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1986)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry, G.C.: Students’ experiences with simulation education, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus, S.: How To Get a Job With a Philosophy Degree, (2013)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott and Cyranoski 2003; White 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Abbott and Cyranoski 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Bessereau et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Heuristics
AbbreviationJ. Heuristics
ISSN (print)1381-1231
ISSN (online)1572-9397
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Control and Optimization

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