How to format your references using the Journal of Heuristics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Heuristics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Horvat, M.: Science in Europe. The new framework for EU research and innovation. Science. 334, 1066–1068 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ketov, S.V., Louzguine-Luzgin, D.V.: Localized shear deformation and softening of bulk metallic glass: stress or temperature driven? Sci. Rep. 3, 2798 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaochar, S., Paek, A.L., Weinert, T.: Genetics. Replication error amplified. Science. 329, 911–913 (2010)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reischauer, S., Stone, O.A., Villasenor, A., Chi, N., Jin, S.-W., Martin, M., Lee, M.T., Fukuda, N., Marass, M., Witty, A., Fiddes, I., Kuo, T., Chung, W.-S., Salek, S., Lerrigo, R., Alsiö, J., Luo, S., Tworus, D., Augustine, S.M., Mucenieks, S., Nystedt, B., Giraldez, A.J., Schroth, G.P., Andersson, O., Stainier, D.Y.R.: Corrigendum: Cloche is a bHLH-PAS transcription factor that drives haemato-vascular specification. Nature. 555, 543 (2018)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guillaume, P.: Music and Acoustics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
Schneider Beck Fl., A.C.: Dynamic Reconfigurable Architectures and Transparent Optimization Techniques: Automatic Acceleration of Software Execution. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2010)
A chapter in an edited book
Sergi, M., Caboi, F., Maullu, C., Orsini, G., Tonon, G.: Enzymatic techniques for PEGylation of biopharmaceuticals. In: Veronese, F.M. (ed.) PEGylated Protein Drugs: Basic Science and Clinical Applications. pp. 75–88. Birkhäuser, Basel (2009)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Heuristics.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Amazingly Intricate Spider Web Uses Suspended Rock As An Anchor


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Revisions to OMB’s Circular A-130. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2000)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ray, R.T.: Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of HIV Screening in a Primary Care Clinic, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J.B.: Social Investing Entices Converts, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Horvat 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Horvat 2011; Ketov and Louzguine-Luzgin 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ketov and Louzguine-Luzgin 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Reischauer et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Heuristics
AbbreviationJ. Heuristics
ISSN (print)1381-1231
ISSN (online)1572-9397
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications
Information Systems
Management Science and Operations Research
Control and Optimization

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