How to format your references using the Journal of Global Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Global Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sabeti, P.: Genome-sequencing anniversary. The landscape of human evolution. Science. 331, 690 (2011)
A journal article with 2 authors
Engwerda, C.R., Good, M.F.: Immunology. Platelets kill the parasite within. Science. 338, 1304–1305 (2012)
A journal article with 3 authors
De Pontieu, B., Erdélyi, R., James, S.P.: Solar chromospheric spicules from the leakage of photospheric oscillations and flows. Nature. 430, 536–539 (2004)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Y.B., Wan, X., Cai, B.G., Cheng, Q., Cui, T.J.: Frequency-controls of electromagnetic multi-beam scanning by metasurfaces. Sci. Rep. 4, 6921 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fanchi, J.R.: Math Refresher for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2006)
An edited book
Ruyter, D.J. de, Miedema, S. eds: Moral Education and Development: A Lifetime Commitment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2011)
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Y., Yang, D., Liu, F., Cao, Y., Rehtanz, C.: Identification of Dominant Complex Orthogonal Mode (COM). In: Yang, D., Liu, F., Cao, Y., and Rehtanz, C. (eds.) Interconnected Power Systems: Wide-Area Dynamic Monitoring and Control Applications. pp. 75–92. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Global Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Watch Live As Comet C/2014 Q2 Lovejoy Makes Its Closest Approach With Sun,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Environmental Protection: Research and Development of Plasma Arc Technology Used to Treat Hazardous Waste. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1999)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmittel, M.: The Children First Foundation Parenting Education Program: A Study on the Effectiveness of a Divorce Parenting Education Program, (2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnard, A., Hubbard, B., Fisher, I.: As Atrocities Mount in Syria, Justice Seems Out of Reach, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Global Optimization
AbbreviationJ. Glob. Optim.
ISSN (print)0925-5001
ISSN (online)1573-2916
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles