How to format your references using the Journal of Global Optimization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Global Optimization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E.: Retraction signals end of cell-biology debate. Nature. 427, 574 (2004)
A journal article with 2 authors
Nguyen, A.N., Zinner, E.: Discovery of ancient silicate stardust in a meteorite. Science. 303, 1496–1499 (2004)
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffith, S., Goldwater, D., Jacobson, J.M.: Robotics: self-replication from random parts. Nature. 437, 636 (2005)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kataoka, N., Dobashi, I., Hagiwara, M., Ohno, M.: hDbr1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein with a protein phosphatase-like motif essential for debranching activity. Sci. Rep. 3, 1090 (2013)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiedenmannott, W.: Industrielle Wasseraufbereitung. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2016)
An edited book
Gurtoo, A., Williams, C. eds: Developing Country Perspectives on Public Service Delivery. Springer India, New Delhi (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Miettinen, M., Kulovesi, J., Kalmari, J., Visala, A.: New Measurement Concept for Forest Harvester Head. In: Howard, A., Iagnemma, K., and Kelly, A. (eds.) Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 7th International Conference. pp. 35–44. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Global Optimization.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Millions Of Spiders Fleeing Floods Embellish Land With Spectacular Webs,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Airport Funding: FAA’s and Industry’s Cost Estimates for Airport Development. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2017)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taboada-Peña, R.: A Self-Empowering Holistic Art-Based Model Designed to Promote Emotional Well-Being, Coping Skills, and Self-Esteem in Youth, (2017)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.: Writer’s Body Is Weaker, But Voice Remains Strong, (2011)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Global Optimization
AbbreviationJ. Glob. Optim.
ISSN (print)0925-5001
ISSN (online)1573-2916
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Management Science and Operations Research
Applied Mathematics
Control and Optimization

Other styles