How to format your references using the Rethinking History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rethinking History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garman, Elspeth F. 2014. “Developments in X-Ray Crystallographic Structure Determination of Biological Macromolecules.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 343 (6175): 1102–1108.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baughn, Anthony D., and Michael H. Malamy. 2004. “The Strict Anaerobe Bacteroides Fragilis Grows in and Benefits from Nanomolar Concentrations of Oxygen.” Nature 427 (6973): 441–444.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yudkovsky, N., J. A. Ranish, and S. Hahn. 2000. “A Transcription Reinitiation Intermediate That Is Stabilized by Activator.” Nature 408 (6809): 225–229.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Jeong M., Hui Wu, Gopa Green, Cheryl A. Winkler, Jeffrey B. Kopp, Jeffrey H. Miner, Emil R. Unanue, and Andrey S. Shaw. 2003. “CD2-Associated Protein Haploinsufficiency Is Linked to Glomerular Disease Susceptibility.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5623): 1298–1300.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Franco, Pedro. 2014. Understanding Bitcoin. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ystad, Sølvi, Mitsuko Aramaki, Richard Kronland-Martinet, and Kristoffer Jensen, eds. 2010. Auditory Display: 6th International Symposium, CMMR/ICAD 2009, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 18-22, 2009. Revised Papers. Vol. 5954. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhuang, Canwei, and Shaorong Feng. 2012. “Reuse the Deleted Labels for Vector Order-Based Dynamic XML Labeling Schemes.” In Database and Expert Systems Applications: 23rd International Conference, DEXA 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings, Part I, edited by Stephen W. Liddle, Klaus-Dieter Schewe, A. Min Tjoa, and Xiaofang Zhou, 41–54. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rethinking History.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “Watching Nature Documentaries Makes Prisoners Less Aggressive.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Intellectual Property: Patent Office Should Strengthen Search Capabilities and Better Monitor Examiners’ Work. GAO-16-479. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Webster, Wayne P. 2014. “The Influence of Philanthropy and Administrative Decision-Making Models on a Liberal Arts College’s Strategic Planning Process: A Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2005. “Arts, Briefly; Russian Officials Say Looted War Art Can Stay.” New York Times, March 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garman 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Garman 2014; Baughn and Malamy 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baughn and Malamy 2004)
  • Three authors: (Yudkovsky, Ranish, and Hahn 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleRethinking History
AbbreviationRethink. Hist.
ISSN (print)1364-2529
ISSN (online)1470-1154

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