How to format your references using the Rethinking History citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Rethinking History. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hedges, Robert. 2003. “Archaeological Verification: Puzzling out the Past.” Nature 422 (6933): 667.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gani, R., and S. Leach. 2001. “Transmission Potential of Smallpox in Contemporary Populations.” Nature 414 (6865): 748–751.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fricke, Henry C., Justin Hencecroth, and Marie E. Hoerner. 2011. “Lowland-Upland Migration of Sauropod Dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic Epoch.” Nature 480 (7378): 513–515.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Tang, D. G., Y. M. Tokumoto, J. A. Apperly, A. C. Lloyd, and M. C. Raff. 2001. “Lack of Replicative Senescence in Cultured Rat Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5505): 868–871.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dant, Sara. 2016. Losing Eden. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Mingos, D. Michael P., ed. 2016. The Chemical Bond II: 100 Years Old and Getting Stronger. 1st ed. 2016. Vol. 170. Structure and Bonding. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Klemm, Rosemarie, and Dietrich Klemm. 2013. “Gold Production Sites and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt.” In Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia: Geoarchaeology of the Ancient Gold Mining Sites in the Egyptian and Sudanese Eastern Deserts, edited by Dietrich Klemm, 51–339. Natural Science in Archaeology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Rethinking History.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “1500-Year-Old Amulet With Palindrome Inscription Discovered In Cyprus.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Information Technology: Early Releases of Customs Trade System Operating, but Pattern of Cost and Schedule Problems Needs to Be Addressed. GAO-04-719. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boukes, John. 2012. “An Exploration of Online Spam Prevention through Geolocational Filters.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “Uma Thurman to Star On Broadway This Fall.” New York Times, July 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hedges 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hedges 2003; Gani and Leach 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gani and Leach 2001)
  • Three authors: (Fricke, Hencecroth, and Hoerner 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Tang et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleRethinking History
AbbreviationRethink. Hist.
ISSN (print)1364-2529
ISSN (online)1470-1154

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