How to format your references using the Journal of Geography in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geography in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C. (2011). Lifestyle: Breaking the cancer habit. Nature, 471(7339), S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, W. G., & Goldstein, S. L. (2005). Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5720), 401–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kurth, I., Georgescu, R. E., & O’Donnell, M. E. (2013). A solution to release twisted DNA during chromosome replication by coupled DNA polymerases. Nature, 496(7443), 119–122.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sundar, L. S., Singh, M. K., Ramana, E. V., Singh, B., Grácio, J., & Sousa, A. C. M. (2014). Enhanced thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanodiamond-nickel nanocomposite nanofluids. Scientific Reports, 4, 4039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ahmad, K. (2005). Sourcebook of ATM and IP Internetworking. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Thalheim, B., Schewe, K.-D., Prinz, A., & Buchberger, B. (Eds.). (2015). Correct Software in Web Applications and Web Services. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickett, C. A., Villines, T. C., & Taylor, A. J. (2013). Auscultation and Atherosclerosis. In A. J. Taylor & T. C. Villines (Eds.), Atherosclerosis: Clinical Perspectives Through Imaging (pp. 59–74). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geography in Higher Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, March 14). Enceladus’ Ocean Might Be Just Two Kilometers Underground At Its South Pole. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Need for a Government-Wide Budget Classification Structure for Federal Research and Development Information, Appendix IV (PAD-77-14A). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klepper, E. M. (2017). Andragogy and Workplace Relationships: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring Employees’ Perceptions of Their Relationships with Their Supervisors [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, April 30). Deadline Nears in Puerto Rico, Amid Haggling. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Thompson & Goldstein, 2005; Willyard, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thompson & Goldstein, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Kurth et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sundar et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geography in Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-8265
ISSN (online)1466-1845
Geography, Planning and Development

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