How to format your references using the Journal of Geography in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geography in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
van Dam, K. (2007). A more attractive career. Nature, 446(7138), 946.
A journal article with 2 authors
D’Anna, G., & Gremaud, G. (2001). The jamming route to the glass state in weakly perturbed granular media. Nature, 413(6854), 407–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matter, N., Herrlich, P., & König, H. (2002). Signal-dependent regulation of splicing via phosphorylation of Sam68. Nature, 420(6916), 691–695.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Caudy, A. A., Ketting, R. F., Hammond, S. M., Denli, A. M., Bathoorn, A. M. P., Tops, B. B. J., Silva, J. M., Myers, M. M., Hannon, G. J., & Plasterk, R. H. A. (2003). A micrococcal nuclease homologue in RNAi effector complexes. Nature, 425(6956), 411–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cannataro, M., & Guzzi, P. H. (2011). Data Management of Protein Interaction Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kitada, M., Williams, E., & Froholdt, L. L. (Eds.). (2015). Maritime Women: Global Leadership (Vol. 3). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Neill, R. P., Helman, U., Hobbs, B. F., Rothkopf, M. H., & Stewart, W. R. (2013). A Joint Energy and Transmission Rights Auction on a Network with Nonlinear Constraints: Design, Pricing and Revenue Adequacy. In J. Rosellón & T. Kristiansen (Eds.), Financial Transmission Rights: Analysis, Experiences and Prospects (pp. 95–127). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geography in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 24). LADEE’s Mission to the Moon. IFLScience; IFLScience.’s-mission-moon/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Railroad Safety: DOT Faces Challenges in Improving Grade Crossing Safety, Track Inspection Standards, and Passenger Car Safety (T-RCED-96-114). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowley, K. M. (2019). Dynamics of Creativity: A Study of Early Drug Discovery Scientists’ Experience of Creativity [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robles, F., & Stewart, N. (2015, July 17). A Church Shooting Defendant With ‘a Darkness to His Life.’ New York Times, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (van Dam, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (D’Anna & Gremaud, 2001; van Dam, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (D’Anna & Gremaud, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Matter et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Caudy et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geography in Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-8265
ISSN (online)1466-1845
Geography, Planning and Development

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