How to format your references using the Journal of Geography in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geography in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holt, R. (2012). US election: Politicians should think like scientists. Nature, 489(7417), 493–494.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fuller, M. T., & Spradling, A. C. (2007). Male and female Drosophila germline stem cells: two versions of immortality. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5823), 402–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowes, M. A., Bowcock, A. M., & Krueger, J. G. (2007). Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis. Nature, 445(7130), 866–873.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Song, H., Jeong, T.-G., Moon, Y. H., Chun, H.-H., Chung, K. Y., Kim, H. S., Cho, B. W., & Kim, Y.-T. (2014). Stabilization of oxygen-deficient structure for conducting Li4Ti5O12-δ by molybdenum doping in a reducing atmosphere. Scientific Reports, 4, 4350.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilson, R. C. (2010). The Hedge Fund Book. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Saaksvuori, A. (2008). Product Lifecycle Management (A. Immonen, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Tabbush, P., Frederiksen, P., & Edwards, D. (2008). Impact Assessment in the European Commission in relation to Multifunctional Land Use. In K. Helming, M. Pérez-Soba, & P. Tabbush (Eds.), Sustainability Impact Assessment of Land Use Changes (pp. 35–54). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geography in Higher Education.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, July 14). Independent Populations Adopted Agriculture Within The Fertile Crescent. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Comparison of Amtrak Employee Injury Settlement Costs Under the Federal Employers’ Liability Act and State Workers’ Compensation Programs (T-RCED-88-49). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gerhart, T. (2013). Convex optimization techniques and their application in hyperspectral video processing [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, July 22). THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; On Road as Equal Partners In New Kind of Political Act. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holt, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Fuller & Spradling, 2007; Holt, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fuller & Spradling, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Lowes et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Song et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geography in Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-8265
ISSN (online)1466-1845
Geography, Planning and Development

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