How to format your references using the Journal of Geography in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Geography in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harnad, S. (2001). The self-archiving initiative. Nature, 410(6832), 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kruse, E., & Agol, E. (2014). KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6181), 275–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dhara, S., Mele, E. J., & Agarwal, R. (2015). APPLIED OPTICS. Voltage-tunable circular photogalvanic effect in silicon nanowires. Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6249), 726–729.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Aungst, J. L., Heyward, P. M., Puche, A. C., Karnup, S. V., Hayar, A., Szabo, G., & Shipley, M. T. (2003). Centre-surround inhibition among olfactory bulb glomeruli. Nature, 426(6967), 623–629.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fleming, P., & Lee, R. (2016). Orthodontic Functional Appliances. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Li, K., Li, X., Irwin, G. W., & He, G. (Eds.). (2007). Life System Modeling and Simulation: International Conference, LSMS 2007, Shanghai, China, September 14-17, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4689). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahlert, D., & Schefer, B. (2013). Competition-Policy Implications. In B. Schefer (Ed.), Vertical Price Coordination and Brand Care: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Prohibition of Resale Price Maintenance (pp. 47–57). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Geography in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 23). Genetically Modified Lamb with Jellyfish Protein Accidentally Sold as Meat in Paris. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Tactical Airlift: Observations Concerning the Air Force’s C-27 Proposal (NSIAD-88-124). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Camaya, C. (2015). Teachers’ perceptions of social skills instruction for children with autism spectrum disorders [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, September 30). Putting It Together, Piece by Piece. New York Times, E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harnad, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Harnad, 2001; Kruse & Agol, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kruse & Agol, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Dhara et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Aungst et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Geography in Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Geogr. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-8265
ISSN (online)1466-1845
Geography, Planning and Development

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