How to format your references using the Empirica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shepherd GM (2006) Smell images and the flavour system in the human brain. Nature 444:316–321
A journal article with 2 authors
Hol FJH, Dekker C (2014) Zooming in to see the bigger picture: microfluidic and nanofabrication tools to study bacteria. Science 346:1251821
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang X, Minton TK, Zhang DH (2012) Chemistry. Rethinking chemical reactions at hyperthermal energies. Science 336:1650–1651
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Harutyunyan AR, Chen G, Paronyan TM, et al (2009) Preferential growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes with metallic conductivity. Science 326:116–120

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Agachi PŞ, Nagy ZK, Cristea MV, Imre-Lucaci Á (2006) Model Based Control. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany
An edited book
Hall GB, Leahy MG (eds) (2008) Open Source Approaches in Spatial Data Handling. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Adderley R, Badii A, Wu C (2008) The Automatic Identification and Prioritisation of Criminal Networks from Police Crime Data. In: Ortiz-Arroyo D, Larsen HL, Zeng DD, et al. (eds) Intelligence and Security Informatics: First European Conference, EuroISI 2008, Esbjerg, Denmark, December 3-5, 2008. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 5–14

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirica.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Venus Express Prepares for its Summer Plunge. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/venus-express-prepares-its-summer-plunge/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Aviation Finance: Observations on the Current FAA Funding Structure’s Support for Aviation Activities, Issues Affecting Future Costs, and Proposed Funding Changes. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gill GJ (2009) The experience of family caregiving of the terminally ill: A phenomenological study. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Graham R (2017) ‘A Second Chance at Choice.’ New York Times MM46

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shepherd 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Shepherd 2006; Hol and Dekker 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hol and Dekker 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Harutyunyan et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirica
AbbreviationEmpirica
ISSN (print)0340-8744
ISSN (online)1573-6911
ScopeDevelopment
Geography, Planning and Development

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