How to format your references using the Empirica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T (2005) Touched by an angel. Nature 435:734–735
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulaczyk S, Hossainzadeh S (2011) Geochemistry. Antarctica’s deep frozen “lakes.” Science 331:1524–1525
A journal article with 3 authors
Kawase H, Okata Y, Ito K (2013) Role of huge geometric circular structures in the reproduction of a marine pufferfish. Sci Rep 3:2106
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cella M, Fuchs A, Vermi W, et al (2009) A human natural killer cell subset provides an innate source of IL-22 for mucosal immunity. Nature 457:722–725

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson RL, Murtha FF (2010) MarketPsych. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Dolev S, Cobb J, Fischer M, Yung M (eds) (2010) Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed Systems: 12th International Symposium, SSS 2010, New York, NY, USA, September 20-22, 2010. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Golovach PA, Paulusma D, Song J (2012) Closing Complexity Gaps for Coloring Problems on H-Free Graphs. In: Chao K-M, Hsu T-S, Lee D-T (eds) Algorithms and Computation: 23rd International Symposium, ISAAC 2012, Taipei, Taiwan, December 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 14–23

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) ‘Climate Hacking’ Would Be Easy – That Doesn’t Mean We Should Do It. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Federal Communications Commission’s Effort To Implement the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richards O (2017) Teachers’ Perceptions About the Value of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Slotnik DE (2017) Greg Marius, 59, Impresario of Harlem Street Ball. New York Times B16

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Reichhardt 2005; Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Cella et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirica
ISSN (print)0340-8744
ISSN (online)1573-6911
Geography, Planning and Development

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