How to format your references using the Empirica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trenberth KE (2004) Climatology (communication arising): rural land-use change and climate. Nature 427:213; discussion 214
A journal article with 2 authors
Aizer A, Currie J (2014) The intergenerational transmission of inequality: maternal disadvantage and health at birth. Science 344:856–861
A journal article with 3 authors
Karnath H-O, Borchers S, Himmelbach M (2010) Comment on “Movement intention after parietal cortex stimulation in humans.” Science 327:1200; author reply 1200
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Hillman TR, Yamauchi T, Choi W, et al (2013) Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media. Sci Rep 3:1909

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong ACM, Hui SC (2006) Multimedia Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England
An edited book
Nesteruk I (ed) (2012) Supercavitation: Advances and Perspectives A collection dedicated to the 70th jubilee of Yu.N. Savchenko. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
From PJ, Gravdahl JT, Pettersen KY (2014) Kinematics of Manipulators on a Fixed Base. In: Gravdahl JT, Pettersen KY (eds) Vehicle-Manipulator Systems: Modeling for Simulation, Analysis, and Control. Springer, London, pp 125–167

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirica.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2017) Boeing Is Working On A Hypersonic Space Plane That Can Be Ready To Launch In Hours. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Untangling the Stafford Student Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jackson M (2012) A Bibliometric Analysis of Green Building Literature. Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Friedman L, Schwartz J (2017) Warm Gulf Fuels the Rain and Gives It Nowhere to Go. New York Times A13

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Trenberth 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Trenberth 2004; Aizer and Currie 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aizer and Currie 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hillman et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirica
ISSN (print)0340-8744
ISSN (online)1573-6911
Geography, Planning and Development

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