How to format your references using the Empirica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson JB (2007) Climate change. Ice sheet stability and sea-level rise. Science 315:1803–1804
A journal article with 2 authors
Frisch RL, Rosenberg SM (2011) Microbiology. Antibiotic resistance, not shaken or stirred. Science 333:1713–1714
A journal article with 3 authors
Kageyama A, Miyagoshi T, Sato T (2008) Formation of current coils in geodynamo simulations. Nature 454:1106–1109
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gunawardane LS, Saito K, Nishida KM, et al (2007) A slicer-mediated mechanism for repeat-associated siRNA 5’ end formation in Drosophila. Science 315:1587–1590

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kerzner H (2015) Project Management 2.0. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ali Babar M, Dingsøyr T, Lago P, van Vliet H (eds) (2009) Software Architecture Knowledge Management: Theory and Practice. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kunihiro N (2012) On Optimal Bounds of Small Inverse Problems and Approximate GCD Problems with Higher Degree. In: Gollmann D, Freiling FC (eds) Information Security: 15th International Conference, ISC 2012, Passau, Germany, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 55–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Develop Telescopic Contact Lenses That Can Zoom 3X. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Plans to Close and Contract Out Low-Activity Towers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelser CR (2010) Interpretation of Aaron Copland’s Duo for Flute and Piano. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) For Men, Sport’s Stigma Dampens Appeal. New York Times SP7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anderson 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson 2007; Frisch and Rosenberg 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frisch and Rosenberg 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Gunawardane et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirica
ISSN (print)0340-8744
ISSN (online)1573-6911
Geography, Planning and Development

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