How to format your references using the Empirica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Samardzija MR (2007) Science and law. The obvious war. Science 315:190–191
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamilton DP, Krüger H (2008) The sculpting of Jupiter’s gossamer rings by its shadow. Nature 453:72–75
A journal article with 3 authors
Alonso S, Sagués F, Mikhailov AS (2003) Taming Winfree turbulence of scroll waves in excitable media. Science 299:1722–1725
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Huang J, Perez-Burgos L, Placek BJ, et al (2006) Repression of p53 activity by Smyd2-mediated methylation. Nature 444:629–632

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Speight JG (2016) Peak Energy: Myth or Reality? John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Krishnaraj V (2013) Drilling of Polymer-Matrix Composites. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Revathi A, Venkataramani Y (2015) Text Independent Speaker and Emotion Independent Speech Recognition in Emotional Environment. In: Mandal JK, Satapathy SC, Kumar Sanyal M, et al. (eds) Information Systems Design and Intelligent Applications: Proceedings of Second International Conference INDIA 2015, Volume 1. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 43–52

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirica.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Children With Prosthetics Could Soon Be Creating Their Own Lego Attachments. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Early Childhood Programs: Many Poor Children and Strained Resources Challenge Head Start. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marulkar S (2016) Indoor object localization system. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2012) In New Digital Comics, Each Tap Holds a Surprise. New York Times F5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Samardzija 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Samardzija 2007; Hamilton and Krüger 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamilton and Krüger 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Huang et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirica
ISSN (print)0340-8744
ISSN (online)1573-6911
Geography, Planning and Development

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