How to format your references using the Empirica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Empirica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mokyr J (2015) ECONOMICS. Intellectuals and the rise of the modern economy. Science 349:141–142
A journal article with 2 authors
Berger A, Loutre MF (2002) Climate. An exceptionally long interglacial ahead? Science 297:1287–1288
A journal article with 3 authors
Vaccari NE, Edgecombe GD, Escudero C (2004) Cambrian origins and affinities of an enigmatic fossil group of arthropods. Nature 430:554–557
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lebreton S, Grabe V, Omondi AB, et al (2014) Love makes smell blind: mating suppresses pheromone attraction in Drosophila females via Or65a olfactory neurons. Sci Rep 4:7119

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Casandjian C, Challamel N, Lanos C, Hellesland J (2013) Reinforced Concrete Beams, Columns and Frames. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA
An edited book
Guo Y, Friston K, Aldo F, et al (eds) (2015) Brain Informatics and Health: 8th International Conference, BIH 2015, London, UK, August 30 - September 2, 2015. Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ermentrout GB, Terman DH (2010) The Variety of Channels. In: Terman DH (ed) Mathematical Foundations of Neuroscience. Springer, New York, NY, pp 77–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Empirica.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) Earth’s Deepest Water May Be 1,000 Kilometers Below The Surface. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) DOD’s High-Risk Areas: Efforts to Improve Supply Chain Can Be Enhanced by Linkage to Outcomes, Progress in Transforming Business Operations, and Reexamination of Logistics Governance and Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Israel JM (2013) Student Extracurricular Participation, Student Achievement, and School Perception: an Elementary School Perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2013) Before Attempting To Top Opponents, U.S. Open Players Must Beat Traffic. New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mokyr 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Berger and Loutre 2002; Mokyr 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berger and Loutre 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Lebreton et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEmpirica
ISSN (print)0340-8744
ISSN (online)1573-6911
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles