How to format your references using the Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D. Japan election sparks science pledges. Nature. 2009 Aug 20;460(7258):938.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergstrom CT, Kerr B. Microbiology: Taking the bad with the good. Nature. 2015 May 28;521(7553):431–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sobolev AV, Hofmann AW, Nikogosian IK. Recycled oceanic crust observed in “ghost plagioclase” within the source of Mauna Loa lavas. Nature. 2000 Apr 27;404(6781):986–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang Y, Fan H, Xu J, Xiao Y, Xu Y, Li Y, et al. Network analysis reveals functional cross-links between disease and inflammation genes. Sci Rep. 2013 Dec 5;3:3426.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bosq D, Blanke D. Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions: Bosq/Inference and Prediction in Large Dimensions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2007. (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics).
An edited book
Corchado E, Kurzyński M, Woźniak M, editors. Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems: 6th International Conference, HAIS 2011, Wroclaw, Poland, May 23-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XXX, 472 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6678).
A chapter in an edited book
Neugebauer J, Magenheim J, Ohrndorf L, Schaper N, Schubert S. Defining Proficiency Levels of High School Students in Computer Science by an Empirical Task Analysis Results of the MoKoM Project. In: Brodnik A, Vahrenhold J, editors. Informatics in Schools Curricula, Competences, and Competitions: 8th International Conference on Informatics in Schools: Situation, Evolution, and Perspectives, ISSEP 2015, Ljubljana, Slovenia, September 28 - October 1, 2015, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 45–56. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
Davis J. US Government Allows Shell to Resume Drilling In The Arctic [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Safety Inspection Program Needed To Improve Flight Safety of Civil Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971 Jan. Report No.: B-164497(1).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallegos LL. Spatiotemporal regulation of protein kinase C signaling: Control of normal cellular dynamics and mis-regulation in cancer [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Syndergaard Stumbles en Route to a Potential Wild-Card Start. New York Times. 2016 Sep 20;B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationJ. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)0815-9319
ISSN (online)1440-1746

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