How to format your references using the Journal of Further and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Further and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Winful, Herbert G. 2003. “Optics (Communication Arising): Mechanism for ‘superluminal’ Tunnelling.” Nature 424 (6949): 638; discussion 638.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jinek, Martin, and Jennifer A. Doudna. 2009. “A Three-Dimensional View of the Molecular Machinery of RNA Interference.” Nature 457 (7228): 405–412.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishimune, Hiroshi, Joshua R. Sanes, and Steven S. Carlson. 2004. “A Synaptic Laminin-Calcium Channel Interaction Organizes Active Zones in Motor Nerve Terminals.” Nature 432 (7017): 580–587.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Shang, Guo Liang, Guang Tao Fei, Yao Zhang, Peng Yan, Shao Hui Xu, Hao Miao Ouyang, and Li De Zhang. 2014. “Fano Resonance in Anodic Aluminum Oxide Based Photonic Crystals.” Scientific Reports 4 (January): 3601.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safari, Meysam, Mohamed Ariff, and Shamsher Mohamad. 2014. Sukuk Securities. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Gopalakrishnakone, P., Gerardo A. Corzo, Maria Elena de Lima, and Elia Diego-García, eds. 2016. Spider Venoms. Toxinology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Asti, Emanuele, and Luigi Bonavina. 2016. “Management of Postoperative Complications in Esophagogastric Surgery.” In Acute Care Surgery Handbook: Volume 2 Common Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Emergencies, edited by Salomone Di Saverio, Fausto Catena, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, and George Velmahos, 55–64. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Further and Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2015. “New Cause Behind Three Mysterious Mass Extinctions Revealed.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. Assessment of Audits of Bilingual Education Grants in Texas by U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Inspector General. AFMD-85-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griess, Julie Omodio. 2010. “A Canine Audience: The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Reading Progress among Students Identified with Learning Disabilities.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
MacFARQUHAR, Neil. 2017. “Opposition Leader Tests Public Support for Bid to Topple Putin.” New York Times, June 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Winful 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Winful 2003; Jinek and Doudna 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jinek and Doudna 2009)
  • Three authors: (Nishimune, Sanes, and Carlson 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Shang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Further and Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Furth. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-877X
ISSN (online)1469-9486

Other styles