How to format your references using the Journal of Further and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Further and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, Michael. 2010. “Evolution: The First Supper.” Nature 468 (7327): S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Al Khawaja, U., and H. Stoof. 2001. “Skyrmions in a Ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein Condensate.” Nature 411 (6840): 918–920.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chan, Pedro, Robin A. Curtis, and Jim Warwicker. 2013. “Soluble Expression of Proteins Correlates with a Lack of Positively-Charged Surface.” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3333.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chuine, Isabelle, Pascal Yiou, Nicolas Viovy, Bernard Seguin, Valérie Daux, and Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie. 2004. “Historical Phenology: Grape Ripening as a Past Climate Indicator.” Nature 432 (7015): 289–290.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hagen, Jens. 2017. Chemiereaktoren. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Dimitrakakis, Christos, Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aikaterini Mitrokotsa, Vassilios S. Verykios, and Yücel Saygin, eds. 2011. Privacy and Security Issues in Data Mining and Machine Learning: International ECML/PKDD Workshop, PSDML 2010, Barcelona, Spain, September 24, 2010. Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 6549. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickard, Todd. 2016. “The Administrative Process: Credentialing, Privileges, and Maintenance of Certification.” In Interventional Critical Care: A Manual for Advanced Care Practitioners, edited by Dennis A. Taylor, Scott P. Sherry, and Ronald F. Sing, 25–30. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Further and Higher Education.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Earth’s First Land Vertebrates Used Their Lungs to Detect Sounds.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Air Safety: FAA’s Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System. RCED-88-66BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Deutsch, David. 2010. “Increased Mental Health Services for the Homeless.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, David A. 2005. “Fun If by Land and Fun If by Sea.” New York Times, August 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein 2010; Al Khawaja and Stoof 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Al Khawaja and Stoof 2001)
  • Three authors: (Chan, Curtis, and Warwicker 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chuine et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Further and Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Furth. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-877X
ISSN (online)1469-9486

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