How to format your references using the Journal of Further and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Further and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simpson, F. 2001. “Resistance to Mantle Flow Inferred from the Electromagnetic Strike of the Australian Upper Mantle.” Nature 412 (6847): 632–635.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, Sophie G., and Daniel St Johnston. 2003. “A Role for Drosophila LKB1 in Anterior-Posterior Axis Formation and Epithelial Polarity.” Nature 421 (6921): 379–384.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang, Ralph T., Arturo J. Hernández-Maldonado, and Frances H. Yang. 2003. “Desulfurization of Transportation Fuels with Zeolites under Ambient Conditions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5629): 79–81.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hulme, Mike, Martin Mahony, Silke Beck, Christoph Görg, Bernd Hansjürgens, Jennifer Hauck, Carsten Nesshöver, et al. 2011. “Science-Policy Interface: Beyond Assessments.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6043): 697–698.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dubin, Daniel. 2005. Numerical and Analytical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, Using Mathematica. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bault, Jean-Philippe. 2015. The Normal and Pathological Fetal Brain: Ultrasonographic Features. Edited by Laurence Loeuillet. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Vythilingam, Indra, Wan Y. Wan-Sulaiman, and John Jeffery. 2013. “Vectors of Malaria and Filariasis in Southeast Asia: A Changing Scenario.” In Parasites and Their Vectors: A Special Focus on Southeast Asia, edited by Yvonne Ai Lian Lim and Indra Vythilingam, 57–75. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Further and Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “How The Largest Association Of Psychologists In The US Colluded In Torture.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Automatic Data Processing Policies, Procedures, and Practices at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, California. B-162407(6). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salters, Denecise Darcell. 2008. “The Effects of Independent Reading on the Reading Comprehension Skills of Sixth-Grade Students.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gorman, James. 2017. “A Deep Dive for Living Treasure.” New York Times, March 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simpson 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Simpson 2001; Martin and St Johnston 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and St Johnston 2003)
  • Three authors: (Yang, Hernández-Maldonado, and Yang 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hulme et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Further and Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Furth. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-877X
ISSN (online)1469-9486

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