How to format your references using the Journal of Further and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Further and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gwynne, Peter. 2013. “Technology: Mobility Machines.” Nature 503 (7475): S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martincorena, Iñigo, and Peter J. Campbell. 2015. “Somatic Mutation in Cancer and Normal Cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6255): 1483–1489.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolin, John A., Graeme Smith, and Alexander Vargo. 2013. “Oversimplifying Quantum Factoring.” Nature 499 (7457): 163–165.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kranendijk, Martijn, Eduard A. Struys, Emile van Schaftingen, K. Michael Gibson, Warsha A. Kanhai, Marjo S. van der Knaap, Jeanne Amiel, et al. 2010. “IDH2 Mutations in Patients with D-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6002): 336.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maji, Pradipta, and Sankar K. Pal. 2012. Rough-Fuzzy Pattern Recognition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ernest, Paul. 2016. The Philosophy of Mathematics Education. Edited by Ole Skovsmose, Jean Paul van Bendegem, Maria Bicudo, Roger Miarka, Ladislav Kvasz, and Regina Moeller. ICME-13 Topical Surveys. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lewis, Blair S., and Martin Keuchel. 2014. “Evaluation of Capsule Endoscopic Images.” In Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Reference Guide and Atlas, edited by Martin Keuchel, Friedrich Hagenmüller, and Hisao Tajiri, 31–47. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Further and Higher Education.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2017. “2016 Was The Hottest Year On Record For The Third Time In A Row.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Examination of Disbursing Officer’s Account, U.S. Army Aviation Center and School, Ft. Rucker, Alabama. 102186. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashrafzadeh, Mohammad H. 2008. “Provision of Community Services for the Mentally Challenged Population in Iran.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, Linda. 2010. “My Florida Recount Memory: Talking Justice.” New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watzman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Njau 2012; Kelly 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martincorena and Campbell 2015)
  • Three authors: (Smolin, Smith, and Vargo 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Russell et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Further and Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Furth. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-877X
ISSN (online)1469-9486

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