How to format your references using the Journal of Further and Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Further and Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2004. “Comment on ‘Molecular Phylogenies Link Rates of Evolution and Speciation’ (II).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5655): 173; author reply 173.
A journal article with 2 authors
Deng, Kai, and Robert F. Siliciano. 2014. “HIV: Early Treatment May Not Be Early Enough.” Nature 512 (7512): 35–36.
A journal article with 3 authors
Micklos, David, Susan Lauter, and Amy Nisselle. 2011. “Essays on Science and Society. Lessons from a Science Education Portal.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6063): 1657–1658.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Duan, Fucai, Yongjin Wang, Chuan-Chou Shen, Yi Wang, Hai Cheng, Chung-Che Wu, Hsun-Ming Hu, Xinggong Kong, Dianbing Liu, and Kan Zhao. 2014. “Evidence for Solar Cycles in a Late Holocene Speleothem Record from Dongge Cave, China.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hiltscher, Gerhard, Wolfgang Mühlthaler, and Jörg Smits. 2003. Industrial Pigging Technology. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gertsbakh, Ilya. 2014. Ternary Networks: Reliability and Monte Carlo. Edited by Yoseph Shpungin and Radislav Vaisman. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zamorani, Maria Pia, and Maura Valle. 2007. “Bone and Joint.” In Ultrasound of the Musculoskeletal System, edited by Carlo Martinoli, 137–185. Medical Radiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Further and Higher Education.

Blog post
Rivett, Jake. 2017. “Stephen Hawking Has Another Dire Warning For Humanity.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. School Lunch: Modifications Needed to Some of the New Nutrition Standards. GAO-13-708T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grantham, Sarah Catherine. 2014. “Dual Eligibles’ Experience of Care in North Carolina’s Patient-Centered Medical Home.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, John. 2017. “Defying Roadblocks, Silicon Valley Tests a Flying Car.” New York Times, April 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brower 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Brower 2004; Deng and Siliciano 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Deng and Siliciano 2014)
  • Three authors: (Micklos, Lauter, and Nisselle 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Duan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Further and Higher Education
AbbreviationJ. Furth. High. Educ.
ISSN (print)0309-877X
ISSN (online)1469-9486

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