How to format your references using the Journal of Frugal Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frugal Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gittis, A. (2012). Eppendorf finalist. Striatal interneurons: causes of or cures for movement disorders? Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6103), 59.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reineke, S., & Baldo, M. A. (2014). Room temperature triplet state spectroscopy of organic semiconductors. Scientific reports, 4, 3797.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daniel, S., Chaudhury, M. K., & Chen, J. C. (2001). Fast drop movements resulting from the phase change on a gradient surface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5504), 633–636.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Boscaro, V., Schrallhammer, M., Benken, K. A., Krenek, S., Szokoli, F., Berendonk, T. U., et al. (2013). Rediscovering the genus Lyticum, multiflagellated symbionts of the order Rickettsiales. Scientific reports, 3, 3305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, M., & Cutler, T. J. (2012). Haematology Nursing. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shiozawa, Y. (2008). Artificial Market Experiments with the U-Mart System. (H. Matsui, K. Taniguchi, Y. Nakajima, Y. Koyama, & F. Hashimoto, Eds.) (Vol. 4). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Ambroziak, A. A. (2014). The Legal Framework for Regional State Aid in the European Union in 2014–2020 and Its Impact on the Attractiveness of Poland’s Regions to Investors. In A. A. Ambroziak (Ed.), New Cohesion Policy of the European Union in Poland: How It Will Influence the Investment Attractiveness of Regions in 2014-2020 (pp. 63–76). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frugal Innovation.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, August 29). Earliest Eskimos Mysteriously Vanished 700 Years Ago. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). FCC Needs To Monitor a Changing International Telecommunications Market (No. RCED-83-92). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Selph, C. S. (2015). Origins of Music Programs in Liberal Arts Institutions: The Story of Three Florida Catholic Universities (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, February 23). A Script, or Woods’s Road to Recovery? New York Times, p. B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gittis 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gittis 2012; Reineke and Baldo 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reineke and Baldo 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Boscaro et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frugal Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Frugal Innov.
ISSN (online)2197-7917

Other styles