How to format your references using the Journal of Frugal Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frugal Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. (2000). Europe’s X-ray observatory defies the jinx. Nature, 403(6771), 693.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boone, C., & Andrews, B. J. (2015). HUMAN GENOME. The indispensable genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6264), 1028–1029.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aitken, C. M., Jones, D. M., & Larter, S. R. (2004). Anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation in deep subsurface oil reservoirs. Nature, 431(7006), 291–294.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ishii, H. A., Bradley, J. P., Dai, Z. R., Chi, M., Kearsley, A. T., Burchell, M. J., et al. (2008). Comparison of comet 81P/Wild 2 dust with interplanetary dust from comets. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5862), 447–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knowles, R. (2008). 150 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Wooding, P. (2008). Comparative Placentation: Structures, Functions and Evolution. (G. Burton, Ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ozaki, T., Kosaka, T., & Kusukawa, K. (2016). Effect of Degree of Cure on Damage Development in FRP. In A. M. Beese, A. T. Zehnder, & S. Xia (Eds.), Fracture, Fatigue, Failure and Damage Evolution, Volume 8: Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics (pp. 27–33). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frugal Innovation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 6). Giant Alien-Like “Shrimp” Caught Off Florida Is Identified. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Credit Programs: Key Agencies Should Better Document Procedures for Estimating Subsidy Costs (No. GAO-16-269). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd, W. E. (2009). Relational programming in miniKanren: Techniques, applications, and implementations (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, September 12). Summoning Another Storm. New York Times, p. D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Abbott 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Abbott 2000; Boone and Andrews 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boone and Andrews 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishii et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frugal Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Frugal Innov.
ISSN (online)2197-7917

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