How to format your references using the Journal of Frugal Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frugal Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narasimha, R. (2004). Divide, conquer and unify. Nature, 432(7019), 807.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lazar, M. A., & Birnbaum, M. J. (2012). Physiology. De-meaning of metabolism. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6089), 1651–1652.
A journal article with 3 authors
Melchor, R. N., De Valais, S., & Genise, J. F. (2002). Bird-like fossil footprints from the Late Triassic. Nature, 417(6892), 936–938.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dalgarno, S. J., Tucker, S. A., Bassil, D. B., & Atwood, J. L. (2005). Fluorescent guest molecules report ordered inner phase of host capsules in solution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5743), 2037–2039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walkenbach, J. (2010). Excel® 2010 Power Programming with VBA. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Jha, N. K., & Chen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Nanoelectronic Circuit Design. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kundu, M. (2013). Helicobacter pylori Peptidyl Prolyl cis, trans Isomerase: A Modulator of the Host Immune Response. In B. Henderson (Ed.), Moonlighting Cell Stress Proteins in Microbial Infections (pp. 81–91). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frugal Innovation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 6). Star Trek Actress Nichelle Nichols Confirms She Will Fly In A NASA Mission Later This Year. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1984). SSA Data Communications Contracts With Paradyne Corporation Demonstrate the Need for Improved Management Controls (No. IMTEC-84-15). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pratt, P. R. (2009). Analysis of the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the LENSTM process for steels using the finite element method (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bittman, M. (2012, October 10). Heavenly Earth. New York Times, p. MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Narasimha 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lazar and Birnbaum 2012; Narasimha 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lazar and Birnbaum 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Dalgarno et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frugal Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Frugal Innov.
ISSN (online)2197-7917

Other styles