How to format your references using the Journal of Frugal Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frugal Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, D. (2001). DaedalusThe tense road. Nature, 411(6839), 758.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, R. D., & Atkinson, Q. D. (2003). Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature, 426(6965), 435–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Attardo, A., Fitzgerald, J. E., & Schnitzer, M. J. (2015). Impermanence of dendritic spines in live adult CA1 hippocampus. Nature, 523(7562), 592–596.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stelmach-Mardas, M., Mardas, M., Warchoł, W., Jamka, M., & Walkowiak, J. (2014). Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects. Scientific reports, 4, 6620.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell, D. L. (2006). Practical Wastewater Treatment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hammami, O., Krob, D., & Voirin, J.-L. (Eds.). (2012). Complex Systems Design & Management: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Complex Systems Design & Management CSDM 2011. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Guth, B. D. (2006). Methods in Cardiovascular Safety Pharmacology. In H. G. Vogel, F. J. Hock, J. Maas, & D. Mayer (Eds.), Drug Discovery and Evaluation: Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assays (pp. 61–94). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frugal Innovation.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2016, May 10). New Study Solves One Of The “Alien Megastructure” Star’s Mysteries. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Many Federal Programs Fund Transportation Services, but Obstacles to Coordination Persist (No. GAO-03-698T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan, S. A. (2017). An exploratory case study: U. S. Army’s leadership development for organizational leaders (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yagoda, B. (2016, October 14). Bohemian Grove. New York Times, p. BR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gray and Atkinson 2003; Jones 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray and Atkinson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Stelmach-Mardas et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frugal Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Frugal Innov.
ISSN (online)2197-7917

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