How to format your references using the Journal of Frugal Innovation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Frugal Innovation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lowe, J. B. (2005). Cell biology. Does Notch take the sweet road to success? Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5715), 1570–1572.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lake, J. K., & Ostling, A. (2009). Comment on “Functional traits and niche-based tree community assembly in an Amazonian forest.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5930), 1015; author reply 1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schorlemmer, D., Wiemer, S., & Wyss, M. (2005). Variations in earthquake-size distribution across different stress regimes. Nature, 437(7058), 539–542.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, Q., Zhao, J., Brady, A. E., Feng, J., Allen, P. B., Lefkowitz, R. J., et al. (2004). Spinophilin blocks arrestin actions in vitro and in vivo at G protein-coupled receptors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5679), 1940–1944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McConnell, J. (2011). Index of Medical Imaging. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Figg, W. D., Chau, C. H., & Small, E. J. (Eds.). (2010). Drug Management of Prostate Cancer. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Panasyuk, M. I. (2005). The Ion Radiation Belts: Experiments and Models. In I. A. Daglis (Ed.), Effects of Space Weather on Technology Infrastructure (pp. 65–90). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Frugal Innovation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, September 22). Does A Lack Of Vitamin D Put You At Greater Risk Of Multiple Sclerosis? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest (No. GAO-04-31). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richey, B. (2014). Exploration of a Tandem Diels-Alder Ugi-Smiles Reaction (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J. R. (2016, December 3). Colliding Double Hits of Mozart. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lowe 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lake and Ostling 2009; Lowe 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lake and Ostling 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Frugal Innovation
AbbreviationJ. Frugal Innov.
ISSN (online)2197-7917

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