How to format your references using the Journal of Freshwater Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Freshwater Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenlof KH. 2003. Atmospheric science. How water enters the stratosphere. Science. 302:1691–1692.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hopkinson CS Jr, Vallino JJ. 2005. Efficient export of carbon to the deep ocean through dissolved organic matter. Nature. 433:142–145.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guiteras R, Levinsohn J, Mobarak AM. 2015. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial. Science. 348:903–906.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Cao Y, Fatemi V, Demir A, Fang S, Tomarken SL, Luo JY, Sanchez-Yamagishi JD, Watanabe K, Taniguchi T, Kaxiras E, et al. 2018. Correlated insulator behaviour at half-filling in magic-angle graphene superlattices. Nature. 556:80–84.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott DW. 2008. Color Atlas of Farm Animal Dermatology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Liu Z, He J, editors. 2006. Formal Methods and Software Engineering: 8th International Conference on Formal Engineering Methods, ICFEM 2006, Macao, China, November 1-3, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Milojević I. 2012. Transforming Violent Masculinities in Serbia and Beyond. In: Simić O, Volčič Z, Philpot CR, editors. Peace Psychology in the Balkans: Dealing with a Violent Past while Building Peace. Boston, MA: Springer US; p. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. New Species Of Wolf Discovered In Africa. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/african-golden-jackals-are-actually-wolves/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Contracting Out: NASA Not Complying With OMB Circular A-76. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hoffer H. 2012. Aesthetics of destruction: Music and the worldview of Ikari Shinji in “Neon Genesis Evangelion” [Doctoral dissertation]. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J. 2017. Faye Redux. New York Times.:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Huber 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Stefánsson 2011; Wilker 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hopkinson & Vallino 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Krause et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Freshwater Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Freshw. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0270-5060
ISSN (online)2156-6941
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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