How to format your references using the Journal of Freshwater Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Freshwater Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno I. 2005. Ancient foil maker wraps up mobile-phone market. Nature. 436:775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Choi H, So PTC. 2014. Improving femtosecond laser pulse delivery through a hollow core photonic crystal fiber for temporally focused two-photon endomicroscopy. Sci Rep. 4:6626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee H, Cheng Y-C, Fleming GR. 2007. Coherence dynamics in photosynthesis: protein protection of excitonic coherence. Science. 316:1462–1465.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Calamia V, Mateos J, Fernández-Puente P, Lourido L, Rocha B, Fernández-Costa C, Montell E, Vergés J, Ruiz-Romero C, Blanco FJ. 2014. A pharmacoproteomic study confirms the synergistic effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine. Sci Rep. 4:5069.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sullivan DM. 2012. Quantum Mechanics for Electrical Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Etalle S, Truszczyński M, editors. 2006. Logic Programming: 22nd International Conference, ICLP 2006, Seattle, WA, USA, August 17-20, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoffmeyer J. 2014. Semiotic Scaffolding: A Biosemiotic Link Between Sema and Soma. In: Cabell KR, Valsiner J, editors. The Catalyzing Mind: Beyond Models of Causality. New York, NY: Springer; p. 95–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. 2016. What The Bourne Films Get Right And Wrong About Amnesia. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Procedures To Safeguard Social Security Beneficiary Records Can and Should Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Curiel AR. 2013. A re-examination of the Meyers and Volbrecht motor equation for the identification of suspect effort [Doctoral dissertation]. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. 2003. Looking for a Good Word About the Car Alarm. New York Times.:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuyuno 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Fuyuno 2005; Choi & So 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Choi & So 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Calamia et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Freshwater Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Freshw. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0270-5060
ISSN (online)2156-6941
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles