How to format your references using the Journal of Freshwater Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Freshwater Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis J. 2007. The world of undergraduate education. Many voices, one message. Introduction to special issue. Science. 317(5834):63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas CD, Williamson M. 2012. Extinction and climate change. Nature. 482(7386):E4-5; author reply E5-6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turney CSM, Roberts RG, Jacobs Z. 2006. Archaeology: progress and pitfalls in radiocarbon dating. Nature. 443(7108):E3; discussion E4.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Tang JA, Dugar S, Zhong G, Dalal NS, Zheng JP, Yang Y, Fu R. 2013. Non-destructive monitoring of charge-discharge cycles on lithium ion batteries using 7Li stray-field imaging. Sci Rep. 3:2596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schiesser WE. 2017. Spline Collocation Methods for Partial Differential Equations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martin MJ, Beekley AC, editors. 2011. Front Line Surgery: A Practical Approach. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Remy E, Mossé B, Thieffry D. 2016. Boolean Dynamics of Compound Regulatory circuits. In: Rogato A, Zazzu V, Guarracino M, editors. Dynamics of Mathematical Models in Biology: Bringing Mathematics to Life. Cham: Springer International Publishing; p. 43–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2015. Two Supermassive Black Holes Set To Collide. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Higher Education: Tuition Continues to Rise, but Patterns Vary by Institution Type, Enrollment, and Educational Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allen RT. 2014. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Program Managers Regarding an Automated Logistics Environment [Doctoral dissertation]. Scottsdale, AZ: Northcentral University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L. 2012. John Blair, Beto Sutter. New York Times.:ST18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Mervis 2007; Thomas & Williamson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thomas & Williamson 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Tang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Freshwater Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Freshw. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0270-5060
ISSN (online)2156-6941
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles