How to format your references using the Journal of Freshwater Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Freshwater Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jacobs M. 2012. Climate policy: Deadline 2015. Nature. 481(7380):137–138.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maillard I, Pear WS. 2007. Immunology. Keeping a tight leash on Notch. Science. 316(5826):840–842.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morewedge CK, Huh YE, Vosgerau J. 2010. Thought for food: imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science. 330(6010):1530–1533.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Tapley BD, Bettadpur S, Ries JC, Thompson PF, Watkins MM. 2004. GRACE measurements of mass variability in the Earth system. Science. 305(5683):503–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Klir GJ. 2005. Uncertainty and Information. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rodrigues JJPC, Zhou L, Chen M, Kailas A, editors. 2012. Green Communications and Networking: First International Conference, GreeNets 2011, Colmar, France, October 5-7, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Shapiro S. 2011. Foundations: Structures, Sets, and Categories. In: Sommaruga G, editor. Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; p. 97–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Blog post
Andrews R. 2016. Experimental Immunotherapy Treatment For Brain Cancer Hailed A Success. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1983. Computer Technology at IRS: Present and Planned. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chun AR. 2017. Physiological, Ultrastructure, and Preliminary Genomic Characterization of the Marine Protist Thraustochytrium sp. LLF1b (class Labyrinthulomycetes) [Doctoral dissertation]. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrington N. 2017. When You’re Dope And You Know It. New York Times.:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jacobs 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Maillard and Pear 2007; Jacobs 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maillard and Pear 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Tapley et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Freshwater Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Freshw. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0270-5060
ISSN (online)2156-6941
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles