How to format your references using the Journal of Freshwater Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Freshwater Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ellerbroek B. 2014. Astronomical instrumentation: Atmospheric blurring has a new enemy. Nature. 512(7513):144–145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bisley JW, Goldberg ME. 2003. Neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal area and spatial attention. Science. 299(5603):81–86.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bezryadin A, Lau CN, Tinkham M. 2000. Quantum suppression of superconductivity in ultrathin nanowires. Nature. 404(6781):971–974.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Short PJ, McRae JF, Gallone G, Sifrim A, Won H, Geschwind DH, Wright CF, Firth HV, FitzPatrick DR, Barrett JC, Hurles ME. 2018. De novo mutations in regulatory elements in neurodevelopmental disorders. Nature. 555(7698):611–616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Malpass DB, Band EI. 2012. Introduction to Industrial Polypropylene. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lukszo Z, Deconinck G, Weijnen MPC, editors. 2010. Securing Electricity Supply in the Cyber Age: Exploring the Risks of Information and Communication Technology in Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Selvaggi S. 2007. Insegnare e apprendere online. In: Selvaggi S, Vollono E, Sicignano G, editors. e-Learning: Nuovi strumenti per insegnare, apprendere, comunicare online. Milano: Springer; p. 55–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Blog post
Davis J. 2016. New Technique To Analyze Venom For Medicinal Properties. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Policy and Procedures Pertaining to Procurement of ADP Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills CC. 2017. Olfaction and Exhibition: Assessing the Impact of Scent in Museums on Exhibit Engagement, Learning and Empathy [Doctoral dissertation]. Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dinardo K. 2014. Kevin Carr Will Stop Running When He Circles the World. New York Times.:TR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ellerbroek 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bisley and Goldberg 2003; Ellerbroek 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bisley and Goldberg 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Short et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Freshwater Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Freshw. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0270-5060
ISSN (online)2156-6941
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles