How to format your references using the Journal of Freshwater Ecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Freshwater Ecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohn E. 2015. Israel: Research without prejudice. Nature. 525(7570):S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Basler M, Mekalanos JJ. 2012. Type 6 secretion dynamics within and between bacterial cells. Science. 337(6096):815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoo HI, Barsoum MW, El-Raghy T. 2000. Ti3SiC2 has negligible thermopower. Nature. 407(6804):581–582.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Cong W, Liu B, Liu S, Sun M, Liu H, Yang Y, Wang R, Xiao J. 2014. Implications of the Wnt5a/CaMKII pathway in retinoic acid-induced myogenic tongue abnormalities of developing mice. Sci Rep. 4:6082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gregory J. 2014. Central Counterparties. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Nordio M, Joseph M, Meyer B, Terekhov A, editors. 2010. Software Engineering Approaches for Offshore and Outsourced Development: 4th International Conference, SEAFOOD 2010, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 17-18, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Szabo A. 2005. Interplanetary Discontinuities and Shocks in the Earth’s Magnetosheath. In: Sauvaud J-A, Němeček Z, editors. Multiscale Processes in the Earth’s Magnetosphere: From Interball to Cluster. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; p. 57–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Freshwater Ecology.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2015. You Won’t Believe What They Found Inside This Dead Anaconda. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1989. Customs Automation: Cargo Examinations Targeted by Automated Cargo Selectivity System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Niedringhaus B. 2012. Best Practice in Early Reading Intervention: Implementing a Reading Intervention Program to Reach Below Level Readers [Doctoral dissertation]. St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. 2017. Revealing What You May Not Care to Tell. New York Times.:C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sohn 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Basler and Mekalanos 2012; Sohn 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Basler and Mekalanos 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Cong et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Freshwater Ecology
AbbreviationJ. Freshw. Ecol.
ISSN (print)0270-5060
ISSN (online)2156-6941
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles