How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. Blue-sky bias should be brought down to Earth. Nature. 2012;481(7379):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Plous S, Herzog HA. Poll shows researchers favor lab animal protection. Science. 2000;290(5492):711b.
A journal article with 3 authors
Froese T, Iizuka H, Ikegami T. Embodied social interaction constitutes social cognition in pairs of humans: a minimalist virtual reality experiment. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3672.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim JJ, Choi Y, Suresh S, Argon AS. Nanocrystallization during nanoindentation of a bulk amorphous metal alloy at room temperature. Science. 2002;295(5555):654-657.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Griskey RG. Transport Phenomena and Unit Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Laidlaw DH, Vilanova A, eds. New Developments in the Visualization and Processing of Tensor Fields. Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Kashmiri SM, Makinwa KAA. A Digitally-Assisted Electrothermal Frequency-Locked Loop in Standard CMOS. In: Makinwa KAA, ed. Electrothermal Frequency References in Standard CMOS. Springer; 2013:87-127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew D. Alcoholism Research: A Virus Could Manipulate Neurons To Reduce The Desire To Drink. IFLScience. Published October 27, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Security: FAA Is Addressing Personnel Weaknesses, But Further Action Is Required. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Galyer DL. The Influence of Reference Objects on Vector-Based Memory Representations. Published online 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Miller S. Tennis Stars on Steroids? It’s Make Believe, Right? New York Times. May 25, 2017:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Leg. Med.
ISSN (print)1752-928X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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