How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reich PB. Climate Change. The carbon dioxide exchange. Science. 2010;329(5993):774-775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Y, Ang LK. Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell’s fish-eye. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3065.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beal EJ, House CH, Orphan VJ. Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation. Science. 2009;325(5937):184-187.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Paterson S, Vogwill T, Buckling A, et al. Antagonistic coevolution accelerates molecular evolution. Nature. 2010;464(7286):275-278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ronen T. The Positive Power of Imagery. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Shah R. Lipid Nanoparticles: Production, Characterization and Stability. (Eldridge D, Palombo E, Harding I, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Luo M, Watanabe A, Yokota H. Compound Treatment of Chained Declustered Replicas Using a Parallel Btree for High Scalability and Availability. In: Bringas PG, Hameurlain A, Quirchmayr G, eds. Database and Expert Systems Applications: 21th International Conference, DEXA 2010, Bilbao, Spain, August 30 - September 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010:49-63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

Blog post
Taub B. Virtual Reality Helps Scientists Recreate The Sounds Of Stonehenge. IFLScience. Published January 6, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Long-Term Planning for National Science Policy. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne NA. Adults who have learning disabilities: Transition from GED to postsecondary activities. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. T’s Not Crossed in Community College Tuition. New York Times. August 19, 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Leg. Med.
ISSN (print)1752-928X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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