How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chatenoud L. Immunology. Teaching the immune system “self” respect and tolerance. Science. 2014;344(6190):1343-1344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirey SB, Richardson SH. Start of the Wilson cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle. Science. 2011;333(6041):434-436.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zheng X, Zhang R, Huang H. Theoretical modeling of relative humidity on contact electrification of sand particles. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4399.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Goldberg M, Stucki M, Falck J, et al. MDC1 is required for the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint. Nature. 2003;421(6926):952-956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano A. Liquidity Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Berezin V, ed. Structure and Function of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule NCAM. Vol 663. Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Kozioł A. E-mail, Facebook, and Mobile Phones as Essential Tools for Lower Secondary School Students’ Communication. In: Piasecka L, Adams-Tukiendorf M, Wilk P, eds. New Media and Perennial Problems in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Second Language Learning and Teaching. Springer International Publishing; 2015:73-90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

Blog post
Hale T. Archaeologists Discover Mayan Temple Has Two More Pyramids Inside It. IFLScience. Published November 18, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use Of Missile Procurement Funds To Finance Research And Development Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett MA. The Underrepresentation of Registered Nurses in Hospital CEO Positions: A Grounded Theory Study. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Furey J. The Saltshaker Trick. New York Times. August 20, 2017:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Leg. Med.
ISSN (print)1752-928X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles