How to format your references using the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazar MA. Gene regulation. One man’s food. Nature. 2000;407(6806):852-853.
A journal article with 2 authors
Festing MF, Fisher EM. Mighty mice. Nature. 2000;404(6780):815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ragazzoni R, Marchetti E, Valente G. Adaptive-optics corrections available for the whole sky. Nature. 2000;403(6765):54-56.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang L, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Li X. How human location-specific contact patterns impact spatial transmission between populations? Sci Rep. 2013;3:1468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qu D. Manufacturing and Managing Customer-Driven Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Ullberg E, ed. New Perspectives on Internationalization and Competitiveness: Integrating Economics, Innovation and Higher Education. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Härdle WK, Hlávka Z. Theory of the Multinormal. In: Hlávka Z, ed. Multivariate Statistics: Exercises and Solutions. Springer; 2015:71-88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine.

Blog post
Fang J. Ceres’ Mystery Spots Are Even Stranger Than We Thought. IFLScience. Published April 14, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: USDA Needs to Accelerate Time Frames for Completing Contingency Planning. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reece JK. Reservoir Facies Analysis of Middle Miocene Turbidites in Marlin, Dorado, and Nile Fields; Viosca Knoll, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Glorifying the Chickpea. New York Times. April 3, 2011:NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
AbbreviationJ. Forensic Leg. Med.
ISSN (print)1752-928X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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