How to format your references using the Journal of Fluency Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fluency Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lloyd, S. (2008). Quantum information matters. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5867), 1209–1211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kiessling, L. L., & Kraft, M. B. (2013). Chemistry. A path to complex carbohydrates. Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6144), 357–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, M., Johnston, M. B., & Snaith, H. J. (2013). Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition. Nature, 501(7467), 395–398.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Behrens, M. R., Mutlu, N., Chakraborty, S., Dumitru, R., Jiang, W. Z., Lavallee, B. J., Herman, P. L., Clemente, T. E., & Weeks, D. P. (2007). Dicamba resistance: enlarging and preserving biotechnology-based weed management strategies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5828), 1185–1188.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Biech, E. (2015). 101 More Ways to Make Training Active. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Roth-Berghofer, T. R., Schulz, S., & Leake, D. B. (Eds.). (2006). Modeling and Retrieval of Context: Second International Workshop, MRC 2005, Edinburgh, UK, July 31–August 1, 2005, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 3946). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Cicognani, M., & Zanghirati, L. (2005). On the Nonlinear Cauchy Problem. In M. Reissig & B.-W. Schulze (Eds.), New Trends in the Theory of Hyperbolic Equations (pp. 387–448). Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fluency Disorders.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2015, September 8). Can You Solve Einstein’s Riddle? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). National Airspace System: Observations on the Wide Area Augmentation System (T-RCED-98-12). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Augeri, J. E. (2015). Supportive Services for Homeless Veteran Women: Policy Implementation and Discretionary Practices of Those at the Front-Lines of Public Service [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, S. R. (2012, March 21). Oil Under Our Noses. New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lloyd, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kiessling & Kraft, 2013; Lloyd, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kiessling & Kraft, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Liu et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Behrens et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fluency Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Fluency Disord.
ISSN (print)0094-730X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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