How to format your references using the Journal of Fluency Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fluency Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Liu, M. C. (2004). Substructure in the circumstellar disk around the young star AU Microscopii. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5689), 1442–1444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kobayashi, T., & Ganley, A. R. D. (2005). Recombination regulation by transcription-induced cohesin dissociation in rDNA repeats. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5740), 1581–1584.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, A. E., Ginty, D. D., & Fan, C.-M. (2005). Protein kinase A signalling via CREB controls myogenesis induced by Wnt proteins. Nature, 433(7023), 317–322.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Swathy, J. R., Sankar, M. U., Chaudhary, A., Aigal, S., Anshup, & Pradeep, T. (2014). Antimicrobial silver: an unprecedented anion effect. Scientific Reports, 4, 7161.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Magnasco, V. (2010). Models for Bonding in Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Antoniadis, I., & Ghilencea, D. (Eds.). (2014). Supersymmetry After the Higgs Discovery. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bitner-Gregersen, E. M., Eide, L. I., Hørte, T., & Skjong, R. (2013). Summary of Past and Future Climate Change. In L. I. Eide, T. Hørte, & R. Skjong (Eds.), Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective (pp. 39–41). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fluency Disorders.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 8). Pigeons Wearing Eye Patches Must Learn New Routes Home. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Technology Transfer: Improving the Use of Cooperative R&D Agreements at DOE’s Contractor-Operated Laboratories (RCED-94-91). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thixton, H. L. (2017). Identification of Site-Specific Mycorrhizal Fungi Associates of the Federally Threatened Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) in Illinois [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2012, August 9). All-American Match, All-American Ending. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Liu, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kobayashi & Ganley, 2005; Liu, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kobayashi & Ganley, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Chen et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Swathy et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fluency Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Fluency Disord.
ISSN (print)0094-730X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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