How to format your references using the Journal of Fluency Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fluency Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rowley, J. D. (2013). Genetics. A story of swapped ends. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6139), 1412–1413.
A journal article with 2 authors
Frank, S. A., & Nowak, M. A. (2003). Cell biology: Developmental predisposition to cancer. Nature, 422(6931), 494.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gladyshev, E. A., Meselson, M., & Arkhipova, I. R. (2008). Massive horizontal gene transfer in bdelloid rotifers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5880), 1210–1213.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lu, J., Marnell, L. L., Marjon, K. D., Mold, C., Du Clos, T. W., & Sun, P. D. (2008). Structural recognition and functional activation of FcgammaR by innate pentraxins. Nature, 456(7224), 989–992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Delgrossi, L., & Zhang, T. (2012). Vehicle Safety Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yang, M., & Liu, S. (Eds.). (2016). Machine Translation: 12th China Workshop, CWMT 2016, Urumqi, China, August 25–26, 2016, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 668). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Graham, S. (2011). School Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Disparities in Mental Health and Academic Outcomes. In G. Carlo, L. J. Crockett, & M. A. Carranza (Eds.), Health Disparities in Youth and Families: Research and Applications (pp. 73–96). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fluency Disorders.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, March 31). This Bionic Octopus Arm Can Wrap Around Objects And Pick Them Up. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Technology Transfer: Agencies’ Rights to Federally Sponsored Biomedical Inventions (GAO-03-536). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, L. (2012). Internal conflicts through external design: Costuming the contradictions in “The Love Song of J. Robert Oppenheimer” [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hartman, S. (2014, April 4). Brooklyn Boxer Rises, but Her Feet Stay on the Ground. New York Times, A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rowley, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Frank & Nowak, 2003; Rowley, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Frank & Nowak, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Gladyshev et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Lu et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fluency Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Fluency Disord.
ISSN (print)0094-730X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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