How to format your references using the Journal of Fluency Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fluency Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaser, H.-U. (2006). Chemistry. A golden boost to an old reaction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5785), 312–313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Que, L., Jr, & Tolman, W. B. (2008). Biologically inspired oxidation catalysis. Nature, 455(7211), 333–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smolin, J. A., Smith, G., & Vargo, A. (2013). Oversimplifying quantum factoring. Nature, 499(7457), 163–165.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Fan, Y., Wei, Z., Wang, W., Tan, L., Jiang, H., Tian, L., Cao, Y., & Nie, S. (2014). The incidence and distribution of surgical site infection in mainland China: a meta-analysis of 84 prospective observational studies. Scientific Reports, 4, 6783.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chan, N. H. (2010). Time Series: Applications to Finance with R and S-Plus®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Meester, F. D., Watson, R. R., & Zibadi, S. (Eds.). (2013). Omega-6/3 Fatty Acids: Functions, Sustainability Strategies and Perspectives. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Gaudenzi, B. (2009). Assessing Risks in Projects and Processes. In G. A. Zsidisin & B. Ritchie (Eds.), Supply Chain Risk: A Handbook of Assessment, Management, and Performance (pp. 67–82). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fluency Disorders.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 25). What Is It Like To Dream If You’re Blind? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Vehicle Safety: Technologies, Challenges, and Research and Development Expenditures for Advanced Air Bags (GAO-01-596). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kutash, M. (2015). The Relationship Between Nurses’ Emotional Intelligence and Patient Outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky, L. (2010, February 28). Women’s Work. New York Times, M2142.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blaser, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Blaser, 2006; Que & Tolman, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Que & Tolman, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Smolin et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Fan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fluency Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Fluency Disord.
ISSN (print)0094-730X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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