How to format your references using the Journal of Fluency Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Fluency Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nosengo, N. (2003). The quota conundrum. Nature, 426(6963), 211.
A journal article with 2 authors
Belden, W. J., & Barlowe, C. (2001). Role of Erv29p in collecting soluble secretory proteins into ER-derived transport vesicles. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5546), 1528–1531.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia, Y., Sanchez, J. A., & Wangh, L. J. (2014). Kinetic hairpin oligonucleotide blockers for selective amplification of rare mutations. Scientific Reports, 4, 5921.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Morgan-Bathke, M., Hill, G. A., Harris, Z. I., Lin, H. H., Chibly, A. M., Klein, R. R., … Limesand, K. H. (2014). Autophagy correlates with maintenance of salivary gland function following radiation. Scientific Reports, 4, 5206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ganda, K. M. (2013). Dentist’s Guide to Medical Conditions, Medications, and Complications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Proulx, T. (Ed.). (2011). Linking Models and Experiments, Volume 2: Proceedings of the 29th IMAC, A Conference on Structural Dynamics, 2011. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, J., Renukaradhya, G. J., & Brutkiewicz, R. R. (2012). The Regulation of CD1d+ and CD1d− Tumors by NKT Cells. In M. Terabe & J. A. Berzofsky (Eds.), Natural Killer T cells: Balancing the Regulation of Tumor Immunity (pp. 71–94). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Fluency Disorders.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, November 23). What Our Ancestors’ Third Eye Reveals About The Evolution Of Mammals To Warm Blood. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). GAO ADP Data Lines: Issue No. 1 (No. 122631). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Willis, T. Y. (2012). Rare but there: An intersectional exploration of the experiences and outcomes of Black women who studied abroad through community college programs (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, April 29). Dust Off the Old Stock. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (A’Hearn, 2006; Walker, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belden & Barlowe, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Jia, Sanchez, & Wangh, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ogawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Fluency Disorders
AbbreviationJ. Fluency Disord.
ISSN (print)0094-730X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Cognitive Neuroscience
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Linguistics and Language
Speech and Hearing

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