How to format your references using the Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. D. Gershon, Nature 404, 316 (2000).
A journal article with 2 authors
1. G. D. Gaiha and A. L. Brass, Science 343, 383 (2014).
A journal article with 3 authors
1. M. Gleiche, L. F. Chi, and H. Fuchs, Nature 403, 173 (2000).
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. R. T. Libby, R. S. Smith, O. V. Savinova, A. Zabaleta, J. E. Martin, F. J. Gonzalez, and S. W. M. John, Science 299, 1578 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. P. McFedries, Twitter Tips, Tricks, and Tweets (Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA, 2010).
An edited book
1. J. D. Pickard, N. Akalan, C. D. Rocco, V. V. Dolenc, R. Fahlbusch, J. Lobo Antunes, M. Sindou, N. de Tribolet, and C. A. F. Tulleken, editors , Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery (Springer, Vienna, 2005).
A chapter in an edited book
1. T. D. Roza, S. Brandão, T. Mascarenhas, J. A. Duarte, and R. M. Natal Jorge, in Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences: Methods and Applications: ICCEBS 2013 -- International Conference on Computational and Experimental Biomedical Sciences, edited by J. M. R. S. Tavares and R. M. Natal Jorge (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015), pp. 75–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention.

Blog post
1. T. Hale, IFLScience (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office, Electronic Government: Planned e-Authentication Gateway Faces Formidable Development Challenges (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. T. F. Best, Evaluation of Effectiveness, Reproducibility, and Repeatability of Using Dentition for Estimating Cattle Age, Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. A. Higgins, New York Times A4 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Failure Analysis and Prevention
AbbreviationJ. Fail. Anal. Prev.
ISSN (print)1547-7029
ISSN (online)1864-1245
ScopeMechanical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Materials Science

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