How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White JWC. 2004. Paleoclimate. Do I hear a million? Science 304:1609–1610.
A journal article with 2 authors
Choi W, Peifer M. 2011. Cell biology. Arranging a cellular checkerboard. Science 333:1099–1100.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basu P, Qiu J, Powell K. 2008. Making a difference. Nature 455:1002–1003.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Thomas DW, Blondel J, Perret P, Lambrechts MM, Speakman JR. 2001. Energetic and fitness costs of mismatching resource supply and demand in seasonally breeding birds. Science 291:2598–2600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mariño PP. 2016. Optimization of Computer Networks - Modeling and Algorithms. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Albrecht-Schmitt TE ed. 2008. Organometallic and Coordination Chemistry of the Actinides. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buscarini E, Manfredi G. 2012. Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Interventional Procedures in Pancreatic Diseases. In: D’Onofrio M, editor. Ultrasonography of the Pancreas: Imaging and Pathologic Correlations. Milano: Springer. p 47–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014. Tiny Sea Monkeys Drive Ocean Currents. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. [Better Guidance Would Improve ADP Evaluations in Support of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Breckheimer I. 2012. Mapping habitat quality in conservation’s neglected geography.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. 2000. Svyatoslav Fyodorov, 72, Eye Surgery Pioneer. New York Times:146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (White, 2004; Choi and Peifer, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Choi and Peifer, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Thomas et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1932-5223
ISSN (online)1932-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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