How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bindschadler R. 2006. Climate change. Hitting the ice sheets where it hurts. Science 311:1720–1721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Becher OJ, Wechsler-Reya RJ. 2014. Cancer. For pediatric glioma, leave no histone unturned. Science 346:1458–1459.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kernbauer E, Ding Y, Cadwell K. 2014. An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria. Nature 516:94–98.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Xu J, Gao Q, Zhang Y, Tan Y, Tian W, Zhu L, Jiang L. 2014. Preparing two-dimensional microporous carbon from Pistachio nutshell with high areal capacitance as supercapacitor materials. Sci Rep 4:5545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rossetti N. 2005. Managing Power Electronics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Guerrero A, Piasecki M eds. 2008. Problem-Based Behavioral Science and Psychiatry. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sharp AJ, Eichler EE. 2006. Segmental Duplications. In: Lupski JR, Stankiewicz P, editors. Genomic Disorders: The Genomic Basis of Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p 73–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Scientists Develop Telescopic Contact Lenses That Can Zoom 3X. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Security: Breaches at Federal Agencies and Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson EM. 2017. Lessons Learned from the Gender Wage Gap in the Federal Workforce: Structural Changes and Temporal Flexibility are Only the First Step to Equality.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2007. Supreme Court Turns Down Cases on Religious Separation. New York Times:A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bindschadler, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Bindschadler, 2006; Becher and Wechsler-Reya, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Becher and Wechsler-Reya, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Xu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1932-5223
ISSN (online)1932-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

Other styles