How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang Q. 2015. China’s scientists must engage the public on GM. Nature 519:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roman J, Palumbi SR. 2003. Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science 301:508–510.
A journal article with 3 authors
Luo J, Zhu J, Ye H. 2004. Comment on “Tubular graphite cones.” Science 303:766; author reply 766.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Arbeitman MN, Furlong EEM, Imam F, Johnson E, Null BH, Baker BS, Krasnow MA, Scott MP, Davis RW, White KP. 2002. Gene expression during the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. Science 297:2270–2275.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heiberger RM. 2015. Computation for the Analysis of Designed Experiments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McGee RW ed. 2009. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu J. 2016. Ambivalent “Quality” and the Educational Sublime. In: Guo S, Guo Y, editors. Spotlight on China: Changes in Education under China’s Market Economy. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. p 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2014. Antioxidant Reverses Vascular Aging In Mice. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2017. Information Technology: HUD Needs to Address Significant Weaknesses in Its Cost Estimating Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunn TN. 2014. A Puer–Senex Archetypal Model of the Therapeutic Relationship.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. 2013. A Roof Is Planned, but It’s a Waiting Game for Fans and Players. New York Times:D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wang, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Roman and Palumbi, 2003; Wang, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roman and Palumbi, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Arbeitman et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1932-5223
ISSN (online)1932-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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