How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dunlop JS. 2011. The cosmic history of star formation. Science 333:178–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turtle EP, Pierazzo E. 2001. Thickness of a Europan ice shell from impact crater simulations. Science 294:1326–1328.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu Q, Liu X, Tang D. 2013. Extreme extensibility of copper foil under compound forming conditions. Sci Rep 3:3556.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Yokoyama T, Yokoyama S, Kamikado T, Okuno Y, Mashiko S. 2001. Selective assembly on a surface of supramolecular aggregates with controlled size and shape. Nature 413:619–621.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoe I. 2006. Applied Regression Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Tanaka K, Berto F, Mares E, Paoli F eds. 2013. Paraconsistency: Logic and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Daněk M, Kafka L, Kohout L, Sýkora J, Bartosiński R. 2013. The Basic UTLEON3 Architecture. In: Kafka L, Kohout L, Sýkora J, Bartosinski R, editors. UTLEON3: Exploring Fine-Grain Multi-Threading in FPGAs. New York, NY: Springer. p 45–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Exploring our Moon Today to Learn More About Earth’s Youth Billions of Years Ago. IFLScience [Internet]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1994. Space Station: Update on the Impact of the Expanded Russian Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson AM. 2009. A novel role for MUC7 mucin glycoprotein in the innate immunity and genetic propensity of asthma.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Martin GS, Leland J. 2017. Worshiping the Bony Lady. New York Times:MB6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dunlop, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Turtle and Pierazzo, 2001; Dunlop, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turtle and Pierazzo, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Yokoyama et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1932-5223
ISSN (online)1932-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

Other styles