How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Zoology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Zoology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Holmes D. 2015. Addiction: 4 big questions. Nature 522:S63.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stumpf MPH, Porter MA. 2012. Mathematics. Critical truths about power laws. Science 335:665–666.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bode F, Sachs F, Franz MR. 2001. Tarantula peptide inhibits atrial fibrillation. Nature 409:35–36.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Mignot T, Shaevitz JW, Hartzell PL, Zusman DR. 2007. Evidence that focal adhesion complexes power bacterial gliding motility. Science 315:853–856.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Padmanabhan TR, Bala Tripura Sundari B. 2005. Design Through Verilog HDL. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Assens C. 2016. Networks Governance, Partnership Management and Coalitions Federation. (Lemeur AC, editor.). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Perfilieva I. 2015. A New Model of a Fuzzy Associative Memory. In: Huynh V-N, Inuiguchi M, Demoeux T, editors. Integrated Uncertainty in Knowledge Modelling and Decision Making: 4th International Symposium, IUKM 2015, Nha Trang, Vietnam, October 15-17, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing. p 32–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Blog post
Hale T. 2016. Rio 2016 Olympics: How Sick Could You Actually Get From Drinking The Water? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2012. Higher Education: Improved Tax Information Could Help Pay for College. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hambarsoomian H. 2017. Classification of Placental Chorionic Surface Vasculature Network Features Using Machine Learning Techniques.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2017. Security in Stands Is Criticized After Clash. New York Times:D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Holmes, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Stumpf and Porter, 2012; Holmes, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stumpf and Porter, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Mignot et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Zoology
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Zool. A Ecol. Genet. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1932-5223
ISSN (online)1932-5231
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
Molecular Biology

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