How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp M (2002) Science in culture: peas without pictures--Gregor Mendel and the mathematical birth of modern genetics. Nature 417:490
A journal article with 2 authors
Murray J, Segall P (2002) Testing time-predictable earthquake recurrence by direct measurement of strain accumulation and release. Nature 419:287–291
A journal article with 3 authors
Cho Y, Lee JB, Hong J (2014) Controlled release of an anti-cancer drug from DNA structured nano-films. Sci Rep 4:4078
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tanner LH, Hubert JF, Coffey BP, McInerney DP (2001) Stability of atmospheric CO2 levels across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Nature 411:675–677

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goodhew S (2016) Sustainable Construction Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Enss C (ed) (2005) Cryogenic Particle Detection. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sprake J (2012) Haptic Referencing. In: Sprake J (ed) Learning-Through-Touring: Mobilising Learners and Touring Technologies to Creatively Explore the Built Environment. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp 149–183

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Andrews R (2017) Scientists Have Found Something Seriously Weird Beneath Yellowstone. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005) Information Technology: OMB Can Make More Effective Use of Its Investment Reviews. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moris FA (2015) International Trade in Research and Development Services and the Activity of MNC Subsidiaries. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
DAVID KELLY; David Kelly is an editor of The Book Review (1990) “I CAN POP I CAN BREAK I CAN SLIDE AND JERK.” New York Times 744

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kemp 2002; Murray and Segall 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Murray and Segall 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Tanner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Orthop.
ISSN (online)2197-1153

Other styles