How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gould PL (2008) Physics. Cold molecules beat the shakes. Science 322:203–204
A journal article with 2 authors
Land MF, Osorio D (2014) Physiology. Extraordinary color vision. Science 343:381–382
A journal article with 3 authors
Strassmann JE, Zhu Y, Queller DC (2000) Altruism and social cheating in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Nature 408:965–967
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ge G-X, Sun H-B, Sun H-B, et al (2014) Reversible switching of magnetic states by electric fields in nitrogenized-divacancies graphene decorated by tungsten atoms. Sci Rep 4:7575

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bi J (2015) Sensory Discrimination Tests and Measurements. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Chen D (2016) Growth and Characterization of Bulk Superconductor Material. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Smyth M (2011) Review of Existing Solar Wineries. In: Russell J, Milanowski T (eds) Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry. Springer, London, pp 241–356

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Dinosaurs Shrank Continuously for 50 Million Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Schools and Libraries Corporation: Actions Needed to Strengthen Program Integrity Operations Before Committing Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Santos E (2019) Altruism in Psychotherapy: Altruistic Acts as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J (2017) Glimpses of Vanishing Harlem. New York Times MB7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gould 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Gould 2008; Land and Osorio 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Land and Osorio 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Ge et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Orthop.
ISSN (online)2197-1153

Other styles