How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gupta S (2001) Avoiding ambiguity. Nature 412:589
A journal article with 2 authors
Geissler PW, Okwaro F (2014) Developing world: Discuss inequality. Nature 513:303
A journal article with 3 authors
Aarts H, Custers R, Marien H (2008) Preparing and motivating behavior outside of awareness. Science 319:1639
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Bock-Marquette I, Saxena A, White MD, et al (2004) Thymosin beta4 activates integrin-linked kinase and promotes cardiac cell migration, survival and cardiac repair. Nature 432:466–472

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morvillo N (2010) Science and Religion. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Kelly TR (ed) (2005) Molecular Machines. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Li Q, Lam JSL, Fan HSL (2014) Multi-link-ahead Conflicts Prediction in Dynamic Seaport Environments. In: Cai Y, Goei SL (eds) Simulations, Serious Games and Their Applications. Springer, Singapore, pp 69–84

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Epilepsy: Sorting The Myths From The Facts Of A Common Disorder. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Aviation Security: TSA Has Taken Steps to Improve Oversight of Key Programs, but Additional Actions Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lawary Y (2014) A Comparison of How Three Four-Year University Teacher Education Programs Prepare Pre-Service Teachers to Use Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Cooper M (2013) Big Teachers’ Fund to Sell Its Gun Shares. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gupta 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gupta 2001; Geissler and Okwaro 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Geissler and Okwaro 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bock-Marquette et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Orthop.
ISSN (online)2197-1153

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