How to format your references using the Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nottebohm F (2014) Peter Marler (1928-2014). Nature 512:372
A journal article with 2 authors
Gudmundsson A, Mohajeri N (2013) Entropy and order in urban street networks. Sci Rep 3:3324
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashita YM, Jones DL, Fuller MT (2003) Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science 301:1547–1550
A journal article with 5 or more authors
van der Hilst RD, de Hoop MV, Wang P, et al (2007) Seismostratigraphy and thermal structure of Earth’s core-mantle boundary region. Science 315:1813–1817

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maini AK, Agrawal V (2006) Satellite Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Borangiu T, Thomas A, Trentesaux D (eds) (2013) Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi Agent Manufacturing and Robotics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Cullinane K, Cullinane S, Wang T (2016) A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Container Ports in China and the Implications for Their Development. In: Lee PT-W, Cullinane K (eds) Dynamic Shipping and Port Development in the Globalized Economy: Volume 2: Emerging Trends in Ports. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 79–101

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Sea Turtles Sense Seasons Through Skylights In Their Skulls. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Resources, Community, and Economic Development Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ndiaye O (2010) The Predictability of the Sahelian Climate: Seasonal Sahel Rainfall and Onset over Senegal. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Long Game Leaves Mets’ Bullpen Weary, and Ready for a Reinforcement. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Joye 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Diebold 2005; Maxmen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gudmundsson and Mohajeri 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rosenbaum et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Experimental Orthopaedics
AbbreviationJ. Exp. Orthop.
ISSN (online)2197-1153

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