How to format your references using the Journal of Ethnic Foods citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Ethnic Foods. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grünbaum D. Ecology. Peter principle packs a peck of phytoplankton. Science 2009;323:1022–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lord CJ, Ashworth A. The DNA damage response and cancer therapy. Nature 2012;481:287–94.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lebedev S, Chevrot S, van der Hilst RD. Seismic evidence for olivine phase changes at the 410- and 660-kilometer discontinuities. Science 2002;296:1300–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kostić S, Franović I, Perc M, Vasović N, Todorović K. Triggered dynamics in a model of different fault creep regimes. Sci Rep 2014;4:5401.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fogel DB, Liu D, Keller JM. Fundamentals of Computational Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Grabowski J, Nielsen B, editors. Formal Approaches to Software Testing: 4th International Workshop, FATES 2004, Linz, Austria, September 21, 2004, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 3395. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Yan G, Yu J, Chen C, Jia L. Virtual Backbone Construction Algorithms Based on Protocol Interference Model. In: Sun L, Ma H, Hong F, editors. Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks: 7th China Conference, CWSN 2013, Qingdao, China, October 17-19, 2013. Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Ethnic Foods.

Blog post
Fang J. Brain scans of a self-reported out-of-body experience. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Degradable Plastics: Standards, Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moshfegh N. The multidimensional wellbeing assessment: Preliminary validation in an Iranian sample. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Rap Lyrics Lost in Translation. New York Times 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Ethnic Foods
AbbreviationJ. Ethn. Foods
ISSN (print)2352-6181

Other styles